Papers from CS researchers were accepted to the Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP) 2021. The Best Short Paper Award was also awarded to a paper from the Spoken Language
Best Short Paper Award
CHoRaL: Collecting Humor Reaction Labels from Millions of Social Media Users
Zixiaofan Yang, Shayan Hooshmand and Julia Hirschberg
Humor detection has gained attention in recent years due to the desire to understand user-generated content with figurative language. However, substantial individual and cultural differences in humor perception make it very difficult to collect a large-scale humor dataset with reliable humor labels. We propose CHoRaL, a framework to generate perceived humor labels on Facebook posts, using the naturally available user reactions to these posts with no manual annotation needed. CHoRaL provides both binary labels and continuous scores of humor and non-humor. We present the largest dataset to date with labeled humor on 785K posts related to COVID-19. Additionally, we analyze the expression of COVID-related humor in social media by extracting lexico-semantic and affective features from the posts, and build humor detection models with performance similar to humans. CHoRaL enables the development of large-scale humor detection models on any topic and opens a new path to the study of humor on social media.
A Bag of Tricks for Dialogue Summarization
Muhammad Khalifa, Miguel Ballesteros and Kathleen McKeown
Dialogue summarization comes with its own peculiar challenges as opposed to news or scientific articles summarization. In this work, we explore four different challenges of the task: handling and differentiating parts of the dialogue belonging to multiple speakers, negation understanding, reasoning about the situation, and informal language understanding. Using a pretrained sequence-to-sequence language model, we explore speaker name substitution, negation scope highlighting, multi-task learning with relevant tasks, and pretraining on in-domain data. Our experiments show that our proposed techniques indeed improve summarization performance, outperforming strong baselines.
Timeline Summarization based on Event Graph Compression via Time-Aware Optimal Transport
Manling Li, Tengfei Ma, Mo Yu, Lingfei Wu, Tian Gao, Heng Ji and Kathleen McKeown
Timeline Summarization identifies major events from a news collection and describes them following temporal order, with key dates tagged. Previous methods generally generate summaries separately for each date after they determine the key dates of events. These methods overlook the events’ intra-structures (arguments) and inter-structures (event-event connections). Following a different route, we propose to represent the news articles as an event-graph, thus the summarization task becomes compressing the whole graph to its salient sub-graph. The key hypothesis is that the events connected through shared arguments and temporal order depict the skeleton of a timeline, containing events that are semantically related, structurally salient, and temporally coherent in the global event graph. A time-aware optimal transport distance is then introduced for learning the compression model in an unsupervised manner. We show that our approach significantly improves the state of the art on three real-world datasets, including two public standard benchmarks and our newly collected Timeline100 dataset.
Don’t Go Far Off: An Empirical Study on Neural Poetry Translation
Tuhin Chakrabarty, Arkadiy Saakyan and Smaranda Muresan
Despite constant improvements in machine translation quality, automatic poetry translation remains a challenging problem due to the lack of open-sourced parallel poetic corpora, and to the intrinsic complexities involved in preserving the semantics, style and figurative nature of poetry. We present an empirical investigation for poetry translation along several dimensions: 1) size and style of training data (poetic vs. non-poetic), including a zeroshot setup; 2) bilingual vs. multilingual learning; and 3) language-family-specific models vs. mixed-language-family models. To accomplish this, we contribute a parallel dataset of poetry translations for several language pairs. Our results show that multilingual fine-tuning on poetic text significantly outperforms multilingual fine-tuning on non-poetic text that is 35X larger in size, both in terms of automatic metrics (BLEU, BERTScore, COMET) and human evaluation metrics such as faithfulness (meaning and poetic style). Moreover, multilingual fine-tuning on poetic data outperforms bilingual fine-tuning on poetic data.
Implicit Premise Generation with Discourse-aware Commonsense Knowledge Models
Tuhin Chakrabarty, Aadit Trivedi and Smaranda Muresan
Enthymemes are defined as arguments where a premise or conclusion is left implicit. We tackle the task of generating the implicit premise in an enthymeme, which requires not only an understanding of the stated conclusion and premise, but also additional inferences that could depend on commonsense knowledge. The largest available dataset for enthymemes (Habernal et al., 2018) consists of 1.7k samples, which is not large enough to train a neural text generation model. To address this issue, we take advantage of a similar task and dataset: Abductive reasoning in narrative text (Bhagavatula et al., 2020). However, we show that simply using a state-of-the-art seq2seq model fine-tuned on this data might not generate meaningful implicit premises associated with the given enthymemes. We demonstrate that encoding discourse-aware commonsense during fine-tuning improves the quality of the generated implicit premises and outperforms all other baselines both in automatic and human evaluations on three different datasets.
GOLD: Improving Out-of-Scope Detection in Dialogues using Data Augmentation
Derek Chen and Zhou Yu
Practical dialogue systems require robust methods of detecting out-of-scope (OOS) utterances to avoid conversational breakdowns and related failure modes. Directly training a model with labeled OOS examples yields reasonable performance, but obtaining such data is a resource-intensive process. To tackle this limited-data problem, previous methods focus on better modeling the distribution of in-scope (INS) examples. We introduce GOLD as an orthogonal technique that augments existing data to train better OOS detectors operating in low-data regimes. GOLD generates pseudo-labeled candidates using samples from an auxiliary dataset and keeps only the most beneficial candidates for training through a novel filtering mechanism. In experiments across three target benchmarks, the top GOLD model outperforms all existing methods on all key metrics, achieving relative gains of 52.4%, 48.9% and 50.3% against median baseline performance. We also analyze the unique properties of OOS data to identify key factors for optimally applying our proposed method.
Continual Learning in Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems
Andrea Madotto, Zhaojiang Lin, Zhenpeng Zhou, Seungwhan Moon, Paul Crook, Bing Liu, Zhou Yu, Eunjoon Cho, Pascale Fung, and Zhiguang Wang
Continual learning in task-oriented dialogue systems can allow us to add new domains and functionalities through time without incurring the high cost of a whole system retraining. In this paper, we propose a continual learning benchmark for task-oriented dialogue systems with 37 domains to be learned continuously in four settings, such as intent recognition, state tracking, natural language generation, and end-to-end. Moreover, we implement and compare multiple existing continual learning baselines, and we propose a simple yet effective architectural method based on residual adapters. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed architectural method and a simple replay-based strategy perform comparably well but they both achieve inferior performance to the multi-task learning baseline, in where all the data are shown at once, showing that continual learning in task-oriented dialogue systems is a challenging task. Furthermore, we reveal several trade-off between different continual learning methods in term of parameter usage and memory size, which are important in the design of a task-oriented dialogue system. The proposed benchmark is released together with several baselines to promote more research in this direction.
Zero-Shot Dialogue State Tracking via Cross-Task Transfer
Zhaojiang Lin, Bing Liu, Andrea Madotto, Seungwhan Moon, Zhenpeng Zhou, Paul Crook, Zhiguang Wang, Zhou Yu, Eunjoon Cho, Rajen Subba, and Pascale Fung
Zero-shot transfer learning for dialogue state tracking (DST) enables us to handle a variety of task-oriented dialogue domains without the expense of collecting in-domain data. In this work, we propose to transfer the crosstask knowledge from general question answering (QA) corpora for the zero-shot DST task. Specifically, we propose TransferQA, a transferable generative QA model that seamlessly combines extractive QA and multichoice QA via a text-to-text transformer framework, and tracks both categorical slots and non-categorical slots in DST. In addition, we introduce two effective ways to construct unanswerable questions, namely, negative question sampling and context truncation, which enable our model to handle “none” value slots in the zero-shot DST setting. The extensive experiments show that our approaches substantially improve the existing zero-shot and few-shot results on MultiWoz. Moreover, compared to the fully trained baseline on the Schema-Guided Dialogue dataset, our approach shows better generalization ability in unseen domains.Zero-shot transfer learning for dialogue state tracking (DST) enables us to handle a variety of task-oriented dialogue domains without the expense of collecting in-domain data. In this work, we propose to transfer the crosstask knowledge from general question answering (QA) corpora for the zero-shot DST task. Specifically, we propose TransferQA, a transferable generative QA model that seamlessly combines extractive QA and multichoice QA via a text-to-text transformer framework, and tracks both categorical slots and non-categorical slots in DST. In addition, we introduce two effective ways to construct unanswerable questions, namely, negative question sampling and context truncation, which enable our model to handle “none” value slots in the zero-shot DST setting. The extensive experiments show that our approaches substantially improve the existing zero-shot and few-shot results on MultiWoz. Moreover, compared to the fully trained baseline on the Schema-Guided Dialogue dataset, our approach shows better generalization ability in unseen domains.
Refine and Imitate: Reducing Repetition and Inconsistency in Persuasion Dialogues via Reinforcement Learning and Human Demonstration
Weiyan Shi, Yu Li, Saurav Sahay, and Zhou Yu
Despite the recent success of large-scale language models on various downstream NLP tasks, the repetition and inconsistency problems still persist in dialogue response generation. Previous approaches have attempted to avoid repetition by penalizing the language model’s undesirable behaviors in the loss function. However, these methods focus on tokenlevel information and can lead to incoherent responses and uninterpretable behaviors. To alleviate these issues, we propose to apply reinforcement learning to refine an MLE-based language model without user simulators, and distill sentence-level information about repetition, inconsistency and task relevance through rewards. In addition, to better accomplish the dialogue task, the model learns from human demonstration to imitate intellectual activities such as persuasion, and selects the most persuasive responses. Experiments show that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art dialogue models on both automatic metrics and human evaluation results on a donation persuasion task, and generates more diverse, consistent and persuasive conversations according to the user feedback.
Attribute Alignment: Controlling Text Generation from Pre-trained Language Models
Dian Yu, Zhou Yu, and Kenji Sagae
Large language models benefit from training with a large amount of unlabeled text, which gives them increasingly fluent and diverse generation capabilities. However, using these models for text generation that takes into account target attributes, such as sentiment polarity or specific topics, remains a challenge. We propose a simple and flexible method for controlling text generation by aligning disentangled attribute representations. In contrast to recent efforts on training a discriminator to perturb the token level distribution for an attribute, we use the same data to learn an alignment function to guide the pre-trained, non-controlled language model to generate texts with the target attribute without changing the original language model parameters. We evaluate our method on sentiment- and topiccontrolled generation, and show large performance gains over previous methods while retaining fluency and diversity.
KERS: A Knowledge-Enhanced Framework for Recommendation Dialog Systems with Multiple Subgoals
Jun Zhang, Yan Yang, Chencai Chen, Liang He, and Zhou Yu
Recommendation dialogs require the system to build a social bond with users to gain trust and develop affinity in order to increase the chance of a successful recommendation. It is beneficial to divide up, such conversations with multiple subgoals (such as social chat, question answering, recommendation, etc.), so that the system can retrieve appropriate knowledge with better accuracy under different subgoals. In this paper, we propose a unified framework for common knowledge-based multi-subgoal dialog: knowledge-enhanced multi-subgoal driven recommender system (KERS). We first predict a sequence of subgoals and use them to guide the dialog model to select knowledge from a sub-set of existing knowledge graph. We then propose three new mechanisms to filter noisy knowledge and to enhance the inclusion of cleaned knowledge in the dialog response generation process. Experiments show that our method obtains state-of-the-art results on DuRecDial dataset in both automatic and human evaluation.