Research from the department has been accepted to the 2023 Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) Conference. The annual event explores machine learning, artificial intelligence, and computer vision research and its applications.
CoWs on Pasture: Baselines and Benchmarks for Language-Driven Zero-Shot Object Navigation
Samir Yitzhak Gadre Columbia University, Mitchell Wortsman University of Washington, Gabriel Ilharco University of Washington, Ludwig Schmidt University of Washington, Shuran Song Columbia University
For robots to be generally useful, they must be able to find arbitrary objects described by people (i.e., be language-driven) even without expensive navigation training on in-domain data (i.e., perform zero-shot inference). We explore these capabilities in a unified setting: language-driven zero-shot object navigation (L-ZSON). Inspired by the recent success of open-vocabulary models for image classification, we investigate a straightforward framework, CLIP on Wheels (CoW), to adapt open-vocabulary models to this task without fine-tuning. To better evaluate L-ZSON, we introduce the Pasture benchmark, which considers finding uncommon objects, objects described by spatial and appearance attributes, and hidden objects described relative to visible objects. We conduct an in-depth empirical study by directly deploying 21 CoW baselines across Habitat, RoboTHOR, and Pasture. In total, we evaluate over 90k navigation episodes and find that (1) CoW baselines often struggle to leverage language descriptions, but are proficient at finding uncommon objects. (2) A simple CoW, with CLIP-based object localization and classical exploration — and no additional training — matches the navigation efficiency of a state-of-the-art ZSON method trained for 500M steps on Habitat MP3D data. This same CoW provides a 15.6 percentage point improvement in success over a state-of-the-art RoboTHOR ZSON model.
Towards Fast Adaptation of Pretrained Contrastive Models for Multi-Channel Video-Language Retrieval
Xudong Lin Columbia University, Simran Tiwari Columbia University, Shiyuan Huang Columbia University, Manling Li UIUC, Mike Zheng Shou National University of Singapore, Heng Ji UIUC, Shih-Fu Chang Columbia University
Multi-channel video-language retrieval require models to understand information from different channels (e.g. video+question, video+speech) to correctly link a video with a textual response or query. Fortunately, contrastive multimodal models are shown to be highly effective at aligning entities in images/videos and text, e.g., CLIP; text contrastive models are extensively studied recently for their strong ability of producing discriminative sentence embeddings, e.g., SimCSE. However, there is not a clear way to quickly adapt these two lines to multi-channel video-language retrieval with limited data and resources. In this paper, we identify a principled model design space with two axes: how to represent videos and how to fuse video and text information. Based on categorization of recent methods, we investigate the options of representing videos using continuous feature vectors or discrete text tokens; for the fusion method, we explore the use of a multimodal transformer or a pretrained contrastive text model. We extensively evaluate the four combinations on five video-language datasets. We surprisingly find that discrete text tokens coupled with a pretrained contrastive text model yields the best performance, which can even outperform state-of-the-art on the iVQA and How2QA datasets without additional training on millions of video-text data. Further analysis shows that this is because representing videos as text tokens captures the key visual information and text tokens are naturally aligned with text models that are strong retrievers after the contrastive pretraining process. All the empirical analysis establishes a solid foundation for future research on affordable and upgradable multimodal intelligence.
DiGeo: Discriminative Geometry-Aware Learning for Generalized Few-Shot Object Detection
Jiawei Ma Columbia University, Yulei Niu Columbia University, Jincheng Xu Columbia University, Shiyuan Huang Columbia University, Guangxing Han Columbia University, Shih-Fu Chang Columbia University
Generalized few-shot object detection aims to achieve precise detection on both base classes with abundant annotations and novel classes with limited training data. Existing approaches enhance few-shot generalization with the sacrifice of base-class performance, or maintain high precision in base-class detection with limited improvement in novel-class adaptation. In this paper, we point out the reason is insufficient Discriminative feature learning for all of the classes. As such, we propose a new training framework, DiGeo, to learn Geometry-aware features of inter-class separation and intra-class compactness. To guide the separation of feature clusters, we derive an offline simplex equiangular tight frame (ETF) classifier whose weights serve as class centers and are maximally and equally separated. To tighten the cluster for each class, we include adaptive class-specific margins into the classification loss and encourage the features close to the class centers. Experimental studies on two few-shot benchmark datasets (VOC, COCO) and one long-tail dataset (LVIS) demonstrate that, with a single model, our method can effectively improve generalization on novel classes without hurting the detection of base classes.
Supervised Masked Knowledge Distillation for Few-Shot Transformers
Han Lin Columbia University, Guangxing Han Columbia University, Jiawei Ma Columbia University, Shiyuan Huang Columbia University, Xudong Lin Columbia University, Shih-Fu Chang Columbia University
Vision Transformers (ViTs) emerge to achieve impressive performance on many data-abundant computer vision tasks by capturing long-range dependencies among local features. However, under few-shot learning (FSL) settings on small datasets with only a few labeled data, ViT tends to overfit and suffers from severe performance degradation due to its absence of CNN-alike inductive bias. Previous works in FSL avoid such problem either through the help of self-supervised auxiliary losses, or through the dextile uses of label information under supervised settings. But the gap between self-supervised and supervised few-shot Transformers is still unfilled. Inspired by recent advances in self-supervised knowledge distillation and masked image modeling (MIM), we propose a novel Supervised Masked Knowledge Distillation model (SMKD) for few-shot Transformers which incorporates label information into self-distillation frameworks. Compared with previous self-supervised methods, we allow intra-class knowledge distillation on both class and patch tokens, and introduce the challenging task of masked patch tokens reconstruction across intra-class images. Experimental results on four few-shot classification benchmark datasets show that our method with simple design outperforms previous methods by a large margin and achieves a new start-of-the-art. Detailed ablation studies confirm the effectiveness of each component of our model. Code for this paper is available here: this https URL.
FLEX: Full-Body Grasping Without Full-Body Grasps
Purva Tendulkar Columbia University, Dídac Surís Columbia University, Carl Vondrick Columbia University
Synthesizing 3D human avatars interacting realistically with a scene is an important problem with applications in AR/VR, video games and robotics. Towards this goal, we address the task of generating a virtual human — hands and full body — grasping everyday objects. Existing methods approach this problem by collecting a 3D dataset of humans interacting with objects and training on this data. However, 1) these methods do not generalize to different object positions and orientations, or to the presence of furniture in the scene, and 2) the diversity of their generated full-body poses is very limited. In this work, we address all the above challenges to generate realistic, diverse full-body grasps in everyday scenes without requiring any 3D full-body grasping data. Our key insight is to leverage the existence of both full-body pose and hand grasping priors, composing them using 3D geometrical constraints to obtain full-body grasps. We empirically validate that these constraints can generate a variety of feasible human grasps that are superior to baselines both quantitatively and qualitatively. See our webpage for more details: this https URL.
Humans As Light Bulbs: 3D Human Reconstruction From Thermal Reflection
Ruoshi Liu Columbia University, Carl Vondrick Columbia University
The relatively hot temperature of the human body causes people to turn into long-wave infrared light sources. Since this emitted light has a larger wavelength than visible light, many surfaces in typical scenes act as infrared mirrors with strong specular reflections. We exploit the thermal reflections of a person onto objects in order to locate their position and reconstruct their pose, even if they are not visible to a normal camera. We propose an analysis-by-synthesis framework that jointly models the objects, people, and their thermal reflections, which combines generative models with differentiable rendering of reflections. Quantitative and qualitative experiments show our approach works in highly challenging cases, such as with curved mirrors or when the person is completely unseen by a normal camera.
Tracking Through Containers and Occluders in the Wild
Basile Van Hoorick Columbia University, Pavel Tokmakov Toyota Research Institute, Simon Stent Woven Planet, Jie Li Toyota Research Institute, Carl Vondrick Columbia University
Tracking objects with persistence in cluttered and dynamic environments remains a difficult challenge for computer vision systems. In this paper, we introduce TCOW, a new benchmark and model for visual tracking through heavy occlusion and containment. We set up a task where the goal is to, given a video sequence, segment both the projected extent of the target object, as well as the surrounding container or occluder whenever one exists. To study this task, we create a mixture of synthetic and annotated real datasets to support both supervised learning and structured evaluation of model performance under various forms of task variation, such as moving or nested containment. We evaluate two recent transformer-based video models and find that while they can be surprisingly capable of tracking targets under certain settings of task variation, there remains a considerable performance gap before we can claim a tracking model to have acquired a true notion of object permanence.
Doubly Right Object Recognition: A Why Prompt for Visual Rationales
Chengzhi Mao Columbia University, Revant Teotia Columbia University, Amrutha Sundar Columbia University, Sachit Menon Columbia University, Junfeng Yang Columbia University, Xin Wang Microsoft Research, Carl Vondrick Columbia University
Many visual recognition models are evaluated only on their classification accuracy, a metric for which they obtain strong performance. In this paper, we investigate whether computer vision models can also provide correct rationales for their predictions. We propose a “doubly right” object recognition benchmark, where the metric requires the model to simultaneously produce both the right labels as well as the right rationales. We find that state-of-the-art visual models, such as CLIP, often provide incorrect rationales for their categorical predictions. However, by transferring the rationales from language models into visual representations through a tailored dataset, we show that we can learn a “why prompt,” which adapts large visual representations to produce correct rationales. Visualizations and empirical experiments show that our prompts significantly improve performance on doubly right object recognition, in addition to zero-shot transfer to unseen tasks and datasets.
What You Can Reconstruct From a Shadow
Ruoshi Liu Columbia University, Sachit Menon Columbia University, Chengzhi Mao Columbia University, Dennis Park Toyota Research Institute, Simon Stent Woven Planet, Carl Vondrick Columbia University
3D reconstruction is a fundamental problem in computer vision, and the task is especially challenging when the object to reconstruct is partially or fully occluded. We introduce a method that uses the shadows cast by an unobserved object in order to infer the possible 3D volumes under occlusion. We create a differentiable image formation model that allows us to jointly infer the 3D shape of an object, its pose, and the position of a light source. Since the approach is end-to-end differentiable, we are able to integrate learned priors of object geometry in order to generate realistic 3D shapes of different object categories. Experiments and visualizations show that the method is able to generate multiple possible solutions that are consistent with the observation of the shadow. Our approach works even when the position of the light source and object pose are both unknown. Our approach is also robust to real-world images where ground-truth shadow mask is unknown.
CLIP-Sculptor: Zero-Shot Generation of High-Fidelity and Diverse Shapes From Natural Language
Aditya Sanghi Autodesk Research, Rao Fu Brown University, Vivian Liu Columbia University, Karl D.D. Willis Autodesk Research, Hooman Shayani Autodesk Research, Amir H. Khasahmadi Autodesk Research, Srinath Sridhar Brown University, Daniel Ritchie Brown University
Recent works have demonstrated that natural language can be used to generate and edit 3D shapes. However, these methods generate shapes with limited fidelity and diversity. We introduce CLIP-Sculptor, a method to address these constraints by producing high-fidelity and diverse 3D shapes without the need for (text, shape) pairs during training. CLIP-Sculptor achieves this in a multi-resolution approach that first generates in a low-dimensional latent space and then upscales to a higher resolution for improved shape fidelity. For improved shape diversity, we use a discrete latent space which is modeled using a transformer conditioned on CLIP’s image-text embedding space. We also present a novel variant of classifier-free guidance, which improves the accuracy-diversity trade-off. Finally, we perform extensive experiments demonstrating that CLIP-Sculptor outperforms state-of-the-art baselines.