Iddo Drori

Publications

Books

76. Artificial general intelligence
Iddo Drori
Cambridge University Press
🧠 Book in commission

75. The science of deep learning
Iddo Drori
Cambridge University Press, 2022
📖 Textbook available on Amazon
🥇 #1 new release in computer vision and pattern recognition

2023

74. Automatically graduating from MIT Mathematics and EECS at a human level
Iddo Drori, Sarah J. Zhang, Sage Simhon, Keith Tyser, Sarah Zhang, Reece Shuttleworth, Pedro Lantigua, Arvind Raghavan, Zad Chin, Saisamrit Surbehera, Leonard Tang, Yann Hicke, Avi Shporer, Nakul Verma, Tonio Buonassisi, Gilbert Strang, Armando Solar-Lezama
In progress. (JR)

73. Dataset for graduating from MIT Math & EECS and curriculum analysis
Sarah J. Zhang, Sage Simhon, Yann Hick, Zad Chin, Annie Wang, Kirsi Rajagopal, Alice Zhang, Eugnia Feng, Kieth Tyser, Harsh Sharma, Tonio Buonassisi, Armando Solar-Lezama, Iddo Drori
Submitted. (CF)

72. Text to graphics by program synthesis with error correction on precise, procedural, and simulation tasks
Arvind Raghavan, Zad Chin, Alexander E. Siemenn, Vitali Petsiuk, Saisamrit Surbehera, Yann Hicke, Edward Chien, Ori Kerret, Tonio Buonassisi, Kate Saenko, Armando Solar-Lezama, Iddo Drori
Submitted. (CF)

71. Automatically answering and generating machine learning final exams
Sarah Zhang, Reece Shuttleworth, Zad Chin, Pedro Lantigua, Saisamrit Surbehera, Gregory Hunter, Derek Austin, Yann Hicke, Leonard Tang, Sathwik Karnik, Darnell Granberry, Iddo Drori
Submitted. (CF)
arXiv / Data and code

70. A dataset for learning university STEM courses at scale and generating questions at a human level
Iddo Drori, Sarah Zhang, Zad Chin, Reece Shuttleworth, Albert Lu, Linda Chen, Bereket Birbo, Michele He, Pedro Lantigua, Sunny Tran, Gregory Hunter, Bo Feng, Newman Cheng, Roman Wang, Yann Hicke, Saisamrit Surbehera, Arvind Raghavan, Alexander Siemenn, Nikhil Singh, Jayson Lynch, Avi Shporer, Nakul Verma, Tonio Buonassisi, Armando Solar-Lezama
Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence (EAAI), 2023. (CF)
Data
💡 First dataset of 667 university-level STEM questions and solutions from 27 courses (21 at MIT) across 12 departments in 7 universities.

2022

69. Human evaluation of text-to-image models on a multi-task benchmark
Vitali Petsiuk, Alexander Siemenn, Saisamrit Surbehera, Zad Chin, Kieth Tyser, Gregory Hunter, Arvind Raghavan, Yann Hicke, Bryan Plummer, Ori Kerret, Tonio Buonassisi, Kate Saenko, Armando Solar-Lezama, Iddo Drori
NeurIPS Workshop on Human Evaluation of Generative Models, 2022. (WS)
Oral

68. A Billion-scale materials structure dataset
Alexander Siemenn, Tonio Buonassisi, Iddo Drori
Submitted. (WS)

67. A neural network solves, explains, and generates university math problems by program synthesis and few-shot learning at human level
Iddo Drori, Sarah Zhang, Reece Shuttleworth, Leonard Tang, Albert Lu, Elizabeth Ke, Kevin Liu, Linda Chen, Sunny Tran, Newman Cheng, Roman Wang, Nikhil Singh, Taylor L. Patti, Jayson Lynch, Avi Shporer, Nakul Verma, Eugene Wu, Gilbert Strang
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 119(32), 2022. (JR)
Paper / Data and code / MIT news
💡 First work to use program synthesis for solving math and first dataset of university-level math problems.

66. Tracking blobs in the turbulent edge plasma of a Tokamak fusion device
Woonghee Han, Randall Pietersen, Rafael Villamor Lora, Matthew Beveridge, Nicola Offeddu, Theodore Golfinopoulos, Christian Theiler, Jim Terry, Earl Marmar, Iddo Drori
Nature Scientific Reports, 2022. (JR)
Paper / Data and code / MIT news
💡 First work to use both real and synthetic data in the field and make the dataset publicly available.

65. InterDocker: End-to-end cross-attentive and geometric Transformers for efficient iterative protein docking
Allan Dos Santos Costa, Manvitha Ponnapati, Eric Alcaide, Kalyan Palepu, Suhaas M Bhat, Pranam Chaterjee, Joseph Jacobson, Iddo Drori
NeurIPS Workshop on Learning Meaningful Representations of Life (LMRL), 2022. (WS)

64. Solving Linear Algebra by program synthesis
Iddo Drori, Nakul Verma
Submitted. (CF)

63. Solving Probability and Statistics problems by probabilistic program synthesis at human level and predicting solvability
Leonard Tang, Elizabeth Ke, Nikhil Singh, Bo Feng, Derek Austin, Nakul Verma, Iddo Drori
International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED), 2022. (CF)

62. Tracking blobs with machine learning in the turbulent edge plasma of a Tokamak
Woonghee Han, Randall Pietersen, Rafael Villamor Lora, Matthew Beveridge, Nicola Offeddu. Theodore Golfinopoulos, Christian Theiler, Jim Terry, Earl Marmar, Iddo Drori
64th Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma, 2022. (CF)

61. A machine learning and computer vision approach to rapidly optimize multiscale droplet generation
Alexander Siemenn, Evyatar Shaulsky, Matthew Beveridge, Tonio Buonassisi, Sara Hashmi, Iddo Drori
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2022 (JR)
Paper

60. Generalizing imaging through scattering media with uncertainty estimates
Jared M. Cochrane, Matthew Beveridge, Iddo Drori
WACV Workshop on Applications of Computational Imaging (WACI), 2022. (WS)
Paper

59. Language aware zero-shot AutoML
Nikhil Singh, Brandon Kates, Jeff Mentch, Anant Kharkar, Madeleine Udell, Iddo Drori
Submitted. (CF)
arXiv / Project

58. Image2Lego: Customized LEGO® set generation from images
Kyle Lennon, Katharina Fransen, Alexander O'Brien, Melody Cao, Matthew Beveridge, Yamin Arefeen, Nikhil Singh, Iddo Drori
Submitted. (CF)
arXiv

2021

57. Solving the Families in the Wild kinship verification challenge by program synthesis
Junyi Huang, Maxwell Strome, Ian Jenkins, Parker Williams, Bo Feng, Yaning Wang, Roman Wang, Vaibhav Bagri, Newman Cheng, Iddo Drori
IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 2021 (CF)
arXiv / BibTex / Press
🏆 Competition winner

56. Predicting the Atlantic multidecadal variability
Glenn Liu, Peidong Wang, Matthew Beveridge, Young-Oh Kwo, Iddo Drori
🌎 Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning workshop at NeurIPS (CCAI), 2021 (WS)
arXiv / Bibtex / Slides / Talk
🥇 Best paper award winner

55. Top 3 in FG 2021 Families in the Wild kinship verification challenge
Junyi Huang, Maxwell Strome, Ian Jenkins, Parker Williams, Bo Feng, Yaning Wang, Roman Wang, Vaibhav Bagri, Newman Cheng, Iddo Drori
Recognizing Families in the Wild Kinship Verification Challenge (RFIW), 2021 (WS)
arXiv / BibTex
🏆 Competition winner
💡 First use of OpenAI Codex for winning top 3 in an international common task framework competition.

54. Quantifying and alleviating distribution shifts in foundation models on review classification
Sehaj Chawla, Nikhil Singh, Iddo Drori
NeurIPS Workshop on Distribution Shifts: Connecting Methods and Applications, 2021 (WS)
arXiv / Bibtex

53. End-to-end cross-attentive and geometric Transformers for efficient iterative protein docking
Allan Costa, Manvitha Ponnapati, Kalyan Palepu, Suhaas Bhat, Eric Alcaide, Joseph Jacobson, Pranam Chatterjee, Iddo Drori
🧬 NeurIPS Workshop on Learning Meaningful Representations of Life (LMRL), 2021. (WS)

52. Predicting critical biogeochemistry of the Southern Ocean for climate monitoring
Ellen Park, Jae Deok Kim, Nadege Aoki, Melody Cao, Yamin Arefeen, Matthew Beveridge, David Nicholson, Iddo Drori
Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning workshop at NeurIPS (CCAI), 2021 (WS)
🌎 arXiv / Bibtex / Slides

51. Meta learning tutorial
Iddo Drori and Joaquin Vanschoren
AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2021. (TL)

50. Image2Reverb: Cross-modal reverb impulse response synthesis
Nikhil Singh, Jeff Mentch, Jerry Ng, Matthew Beveridge, Iddo Drori
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2021. (CF)
arXiv / Code / Project / BibTex

49. Exploring the edge/SOL fluctuations in negative triangularity plasmas on TCV
Woonghee Han, Nicola Offeddu, Theodore Golfinopoulos, Christian Theiler, Cedric Tsui, Jose Boedo, Jim Terry, Earl Marmar, Randall Pietersen, Rafael Villamor Lora, Matthew Beveridge, Iddo Drori
63rd Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics, 2021. (CF)

48. Pedestrian wind factor estimation in complex urban environments
Sarah Mokhtar, Matthew Beveridge, Melody Cao, Iddo Drori
Asian Conference on Machine Learning (ACML), 2021. (CF)
Paper / Project

47. Artificial intelligence enhances control parameter space investigation in flow-focusing droplet generation
Evyatar Shaulsky, Alexander Siemenn, Matthew Beveridge, Tonio Buonassisi, Iddo Drori, Sara Hashmi
95th ACS Colloids and Surface Symposium, 2021. (WS)

46. SARS-CoV-2 protein docking
Iddo Drori, Manvitha Ponnapati, Allan Costa, Amanda Beck, Daniel Goodwin, Anant Kharkar, Jérôme Tubiana, Dina Schneidman, Haim Wolfson
Critical Assessment of PRediction of Interactions (CAPRI)
🦠 COVID-19 Open Science Initiative, 2020. (CF)

45. Solving machine learning problems
Sunny Tran, Pranav Krishna, Ishan Pakuwal, Prabhakar Kafle, Nikhil Singh, Jayson Lynch, Iddo Drori
Asian Conference on Machine Learning (ACML), 2021. (CF)
🥇 Best paper award winner
Paper / Project

2020 (11)

44. Galaxy TSP: A new billion-node benchmark for TSP
Iddo Drori, Brandon Kates, William R. Sickinger, Anant Kharkar, Brenda Dietrich, Avi Shporer, Madeleine Udell
NeurIPS Workshop on Learning Meets Combinatorial Algorithms, 2020. (WS)
Paper / Video / Data / BibTex
🌌 First billion node TSP approximation and benchmark, using Gaia data.

43. Vehicle trajectory prediction by transfer learning of semi-supervised models
Nick Lamm, Malavika Srikanth, Shashank Jaiprakash, Iddo Drori
🚘 NeurIPS Workshop on Machine Learning for Autonomous Driving, 2020. (WS)
arXiv / Video / Bibtex

42. Learning to solve combinatorial optimization problems on real-world graphs in linear time
Iddo Drori, Anant Kharkar, William R. Sickinger, Brandon Kates, Qiang Ma, Suwen Ge, Eden Dolev, Brenda Dietrich, David P. Williamson, Madeleine Udell
IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications, 2020. (CF)
arXiv / Presentation / BibTex
⚛ Understanding linear time approximation for TSP, by linear attention approximation and a unified framework using the line graph.

41. Morphing semi-supervised protein structures predicted using distance and torsion representations with deep graph ranking
Iddo Drori, Jessie Ji, Zining Fan, Anant Kharkar
In Critical assessment of methods for protein structure prediction (CASP).
🧬 Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 2021. (JR)

40. Trajectograms: Which semi-supervised trajectory prediction model to use?
Nick Lamm, Malavika Srikanth, Shashank Jaiprakash, Iddo Drori
🚘 ICML Workshop on AI for Autonomous Driving, 2020. (WS)
Paper / Video

39. Realistic real-time voice swapping from single unpaired sentences
Carlo Provinciali, Junghoo Kim, Yihong Liu, Iddo Drori
International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2020. (CF DM)

38. Zero-shot AutoML
Iddo Drori, Lu Liu, Qiang Ma, Brandon Kates, Madeleine Udell
Annual Machine Learning Symposium, 2020. (WS)
Paper / BibTex
💡 First use of zero-shot learning in AutoML.

37. High quality real-time structured debate generation
Niles Christensen, Eric Bolton, Alex Calderwood, Iddo Drori
Annual Machine Learning Symposium, 2020. (WS)
Paper / BibTex

36. Variational objectives for Markovian dynamics with backward simulation
Antonio Khalil Moretti, Zizhao Wang, Luhuan Wu, Iddo Drori, Itsik Pe'er
European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI), 2020. (CF)
Paper / Video / Code / BibTex

35. Combinatorial optimization by graph pointer networks and hierarchical reinforcement learning
Qiang Ma, Suwen Ge, Danyang He, Darshan Thaker, Iddo Drori
AAAI Workshop on Deep Learning on Graphs: Methodologies and Applications, 2020. (WS)
arXiv / Code / BibTex
Spotlight

34. Deep variational inference
Iddo Drori
Handbook of Variational Methods for Nonlinear Geometric Data
Editors: Philipp Grohs, Martin Holler, Andreas Weinmann
Springer, 2020. (BC)
📚Book chapter / BibTex

2019 (10)

33. Accurate protein structure prediction by embeddings and deep learning representations
Iddo Drori, Darshan Thaker, Arjun Srivatsa, Daniel Jeong, Yueqi Wang, Linyong Nan, Fan Wu, Dimitri Leggas, Jinhao Lei, Weiyi Lu, Weilong Fu, Yuan Gao, Sashank Karri, Anand Kannan, Antonio Khalil Moretti, Mohammed AlQuraishi, Chen Keasar, Itsik Pe'er
🧬 Machine Learning in Computational Biology (MLCB), 2019. (WS)
arXiv / Poster / Data / Code / BibTex
💡 First use of distance matrix representation in protein structure prediction.

32. Winning the ICCV 2019 Learning to Drive Challenge
Michael Diodato, Yu Li, Manik Goyal, Iddo Drori
🚘 ICCV Autonomous Driving Workshop, 2019. (WS)
arXiv / Poster / Code / Press
🏆 Competition winner

31. Using segmentation masks in the ICCV 2019 Learning to Drive Challenge
Antonia Lovjer, Minsu Yeom, Benedikt Schifferer, Iddo Drori
🚘 ICCV Autonomous Driving Workshop, 2019. (WS)
arXiv / Poster / Code / Press
🏆 Competition winner

30. AutoML using metadata language embeddings
Iddo Drori, Lu Liu, Sharath Koorathota, Nian Yi, Jie Li, Antonio Khalil Moretti, Juliana Freire, Madeleine Udell
📊 NeurIPS Workshop on Meta-Learning, 2019. (WS)
arXiv / Poster / Code
💡 First use of Transformers in AutoML.

29. Protein structure prediction with deep learning representations
Iddo Drori, Darshan Thaker, Arjun Srivatsa, Daniel Jeong, Yueqi Wang, Linyong Nan, Fan Wu, Dimitri Leggas, Jinhao Lei, Weiyi Lu, Weilong Fu, Yuan Gao, Sashank Karri, Anand Kannan, Antonio Khalil Moretti, Chen Keasar, Itsik Pe'er
🧬 NeurIPS Workshop on Learning Meaningful Representations of Life (LMRL), 2019. (WS)
Poster / Data / Code

28. Prose for a painting
Prerna Kashyap, Samrat Phatale, Iddo Drori
🙈🙊 ICCV Workshop on Closing the Loop Between Vision and Language, 2019. (WS)
arXiv / Poster / Code

27. Automatic machine learning by pipeline synthesis using model-based reinforcement learning and a grammar
Iddo Drori, Yamuna Krishnamurthy, Raoni de Paula Lourenco, Remi Rampin, Kyunghyun Cho, Claudio Silva, Juliana Freire
📊 ICML Workshop on Automated Machine Learning, 2019. (WS)
arXiv / Poster / Code / Press

26. Visual natural language query auto-completion for estimating instance probabilities
Samuel Sharpe, Jin Yan, Fan Wu, Iddo Drori
🙊🙈 CVPR Language and Vision Workshop, 2019. (WS)
arXiv / Poster / Code

25. Training data poisoning for imperfect information games
Guy Aridor, Natania Wolansky, Jisha Jacob, Iddo Drori
🃏 Annual Machine Learning Symposium, 2019. (WS)
Poster / Code

24. Assessing the ability of CNNs to detect Glaucoma from OCT probability maps
Kaveri A. Thakoor, Qian Zheng, Linyong Nan, Xinhui Li, Emmanouill Tsamis, Rashmi Rajshekhar, Isht Dwivedi, Iddo Drori, Paul Sajda, Donald C. Hood
🙈 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting, 2019. (CF)

2018 (4)

23. High quality protein Q8 secondary structure prediction by diverse neural network architectures
Iddo Drori, Isht Dwivedi, Pranav Shrestha, Jeffrey Wan, Yueqi Wang, Yunchu He, Anthony Mazza, Hugh Krogh-Freeman, Dimitri Leggas, Kendal Sandridge, Linyong Nan, Kaveri Thakoor, Chinmay Joshi, Sonam Goenka, Chen Keasar, Itsik Pe'er
🧬 NeurIPS Workshop on Machine Learning for Molecules and Materials, 2018. (WS)
arXiv / Poster / Code / BibTex

22. AlphaD3M: Machine learning pipeline synthesis
Iddo Drori, Yamuna Krishnamurthy, Remi Rampin, Raoni de Paula Lourenco, Jorge Piazentin Ono, Kyunghyun Cho, Claudio Silva, Juliana Freire
📊 ICML International Workshop on Automated Machine Learning, 2018. (WS)
Paper / Code / BibTex / Press
Oral
💡 First use of meta reinforcement learning in AutoML and formulation of expert iteration (Alpha0) as single player game.

21. Explainable musical phrase completion
Gregory W. Johnsen, Ling Lin, Lucia Yu, Andrew Dempsey, Vishwali Mhasawade, Daniel Jaroslawicz, Iddo Drori
🎵 ICML Joint Workshop on Machine Learning for Music, 2018. (WS)
Poster / Code

20. Deep mutual information
Andrew Stirn, Robert Kwiatkowski, Iddo Drori
Annual Machine Learning Symposium, 2018. (WS)
Poster / Code
⚛ Understanding mutual information plane in CNN and GAN discriminator landscape.

Industry

(i) Between 2011-2016 founded and served as CEO of a data science start-up acquired in 2017, after working as a research scientist for companies acquired by (ii) Anaplan, (iii) 🎭 Daz 3D, and (iv)  Apple.

Previous

19. Sparse solution of underdetermined systems of linear equations by stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit
David L. Donoho, Yaakov Tsaig, Iddo Drori, Jean L. Starck
⚕ IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 58 (2), 1094-1121, 2012. (JR)
Paper

18. Compressed video sensing
Iddo Drori
🙈 BMVA Symposium on 3D Video-Analysis, Display, and Applications, 2008. (WS)

17. Fast l1 minimization by iterative thresholding for multidimensional NMR spectroscopy
Iddo Drori
⚛ EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 2007 (1), 2007. (JR)
Paper

16. Virtual northern analysis of the human genome
Evan H. Hurowitz, Iddo Drori, Victoria C. Stodden, David L. Donoho, Patrick O. Brown
🧬 PLoS One 2 (5), 2007. (JR)
Paper

15. Error prevention in random linear codes by iterative reweighted least squares
Iddo Drori
⚕ Technical Report, 2007

14. Solution of l1 minimization problems by LARS/homotopy methods
Iddo Drori and David L. Donoho
⚕ IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2006. (CF)
Paper

13. Fast l1 minimization for genomewide analysis of mRNA lengths
Iddo Drori, Victoria C. Stodden, Evan H. Hurowitz
🧬 Genomic Signal Processing and Statistics (GENSIPS), 2006. (CF)
Paper

12. Multiscale representations for manifold-valued data
Inam Ur Rahman, Iddo Drori, Victoria C. Stodden, David L. Donoho, Peter Schroder
🌐 SIAM Journal on Multiscale Modeling and Simulation, 4 (4), 1201-1232, 2005. (JR)

11. Example-based rendering
Iddo Drori, PhD, outstanding doctoral award
Tel-Aviv University, 2004. (TS)
Thesis, Bibtex

10. Spectral sound gap filling
Iddo Drori, Alon Fishbach, Hezy Yeshurun
🙉 Proceeding of International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 871-874, 2004. (CF)
Paper

9. Interactive object segmentation in video by fitting splines to graph cuts
Iddo Drori, Tommer Leyvand, Daniel Cohen-Or, Hezy Yeshurun
ACM SIGGRAPH, Posters Session, 2004. (CF)

8. Video operations in the gradient domain
Iddo Drori, Tommer Leyvand, Shachar Fleishman, Daniel Cohen-or, Hezy Yeshurun
Technical Report, 2004

7. Bilateral mesh denoising
Shachar Fleishman, Iddo Drori, Daniel Cohen-Or
🔮 ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 22 (3), SIGGRAPH, 950-953, 2003. (JR)
Paper

6. Fragment-based image completion
Iddo Drori, Daniel Cohen-Or, Hezy Yeshurun
🔮 ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 22 (3), SIGGRAPH, 303-312, 2003. (JR)
Paper

5. Fast multiresolution image operations in the wavelet domain
Iddo Drori and Dani Lischinski
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 9 (3), 395-411, 2003. (JR)
🔮 Paper Journal Cover

4. Example-based style synthesis
Iddo Drori, Daniel Cohen-Or, Hezy Yeshurun
IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2003. (CF)
🙈 Paper Proceedings Cover

3. Image operations in the wavelet domain
Iddo Drori, MSc, Magna Cum Laude
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2000. (TS)

2. Wavelet warping
Iddo Drori and Dani Lischinski
🔮 Eurographics Rendering Techniques, 113-124, 2000. (CF)

1. Contact analysis of spatial fixed-axes pairs using configuration spaces
Iddo Drori, Leo Joskowicz, Elisha Sacks
🤖 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 578-584, 1999. (CF)
Paper

Book (BK), book chapter (BC), thesis (TS), tutorial (TL).
Peer-reviewed journal paper (JR).
Peer-reviewed conference proceedings or poster (CF).
Peer-reviewed workshop or symposium (WS), demonstration (DM).
Number of citations according to Google Scholar (GS).

Topics

📖 Book (73, 72, 71)
📚 Book chapter (34)
🧠 Learning to learn (69, 68, 67, 66, 65, 62, 56, 45)
📊 Automated machine learning (56, 50, 49, 48, 46, 38, 30, 27, 22)
Combinatorial optimization (44, 42, 35)
Machine learning for physics (61, 60, 53)
🛰 Machine learning for space (59, 44)
🌎 Machine learning for tackling climate change (56, 52, 50)
🦠 Protein structure prediction and docking (53, 46, 41, 33, 29, 23)
🚘 Autonomous vehicles (43, 40, 32, 31)
🙈🙉🙊 Vision, audio, and language (70, 65, 58, 57, 54, 39, 37, 28, 26, 24, 21, 18, 10, 9, 8, 6, 4)
🧠 Artificial general intelligence (73)
Quantum information science (72)
🌐 Geometry (34, 12)
🧬 Genomics (16, 13)
NMR (17)
Compressed sensing (19, 15, 14)
🔮 Graphics (7, 5, 3, 2)
🤖 Robotics (1)
💡 Applied research ⚛ Basic research.