A Candidacy Examination Presentation by Drexel Hallaway

Presentation:  Acrobat .PDF of PowerPoint slides (includes a few extra Kalman Filter slides hidden during presentation)

Syllabus of Papers:



[1]    Welch, G. and E. Foxlin, “Motion tracking: no silver bullet, but a respectable arsenal,” Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, vol. 22(6), pp. 24–38, 2002.

[2]    Hightower, J. and G. Borriello, “Location systems for ubiquitous computing IEEE Computer, vol. 34(8), pp. 57–66, 2001.

[3]    Welch, G., and G. Bishop, "An Introduction to the Kalman Filter," University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Computer Science, Chapel Hill, NC, USA TR95-041, 1995.




[4]    Sawada, K., M. Okihara, and S. Nakamura, “A Wearable Attitude-Measurement System Using a Fiberoptic Gyroscope Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 11(2), pp. 109–118, 2002.


Slightly hybrid with use of earth's magnetic field:

[5]    Judd, C. T., “A Personal Dead Reckoning Module Institute of Navigation's ION GPS, Kansas City, Missouri, September, 1997.

[6]    Randell, C., C. Djiallis, and H. Muller, “Personal Position Measurement Using Dead Reckoning Proc. Seventh IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers, pp. 166–173, White Plains, NY, Oct. 21–23, 2003.

[7]    Foxlin, E., “Inertial head-tracker sensor fusion by a complementary separate-bias Kalman filter Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, pp. 185–194, 267, 1996.




[8]    Addlesee, M. D., A. H. Jones, F. Livesey, and F. S. Samaria, “The ORL Active Floor IEEE Personal Communications, vol. 4(5), pp. 35–41, 1997.




[9]    Newman, J., D. Ingram, and A. Hopper, “Augmented Reality in a Wide Area Sentient Environment Proc. ISAR 2001 (IEEE and ACM Int'l Symp. on Augmented Reality), pp. 77–86, New York, NY, 2001.

[10]   Priyantha, N. B., A. Chakraborty, and H. Balakrishnan, “The Cricket Location-Support System Proc. MobiCom 2000 (ACM Int'l Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking), pp. 32–43, Boston, MA, 2000.

[11]  Randell, C. and H. Muller, “Low Cost Indoor Positioning System Proc. UbiComp 2001 (Conf. on Ubiquitous Computing), pp. 42–48, September, 2001.


Hybrid acoustic

[12]  Foxlin, E., M. Harrington, and G. Pfeifer, “Constellation: A Wide-range Wireless Motion-tracking System for Augmented Reality and Virtual Set Applications Proc. ACM Conf. on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '98), pp. 371–378, 1998.




[13]  Raab, F. H., E. B. Blood, T. O. Steiner, and H. R. Jones, “Magnetic Position and Orientation Tracking System IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 15(5), pp. 709-718, 1979.




Infrared Beacons


[14]  Want, R., A. Hopper, V. Falcγo, and J. Gibbons, “The Active Badge Location System ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS), vol. 10(1), pp. 91–102, 1992.

[15]  Hallaway, D., T. Hφllerer, and S. Feiner, “Coarse, Inexpensive, Infrared Tracking for Wearable Computing Proc. Int'l Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC 2003), pp. 69–78, White Plains, NY, October 21–23, 2003.


“Structured Light In Motion”


[16]  Hedges, T. M., Constellation 3D-i, Indoor GPS Technology for Metrology,, 2001.

[17]  Chinthammit, W., E. J. Seibel, and T. A. Furness, III, “A Shared-Aperture Tracking Display for Augmented Reality Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 12(1), pp. 1–18, 2003.




Non-imaged beacon-based

[18]  Welch, G., G. Bishop, L. Vicci, S. Brumback, K. Keller, and D.n. Colucci, "The HiBall Tracker: High-Performance Wide-Area Tracking for Virtual and Augmented Environments," Proc. ACM Symp. on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST '99), pp. 1–11, London, UK, Dec. 20–23, 1999.


Hybrid vision-based

[19]  Foxlin, E. and L. Naimark, “VIS-tracker: a wearable vision-inertial self-tracker Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality (VR 2003), pp. 199–206, 2003.

[20]  You, S. Y., U. Neuman, and R. Azuma, “Orientation tracking for outdoor augmented reality registration IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 19(6), pp. 36–42, 1999.


Radio-Frequency (RF)



[21]  Hirose, M. and T. Amemiya., “Wearable Finger-Braille Interface for Navigation of Deaf-Blind in Ubiquitous Barrier-Free Space Proc. Int'l Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Int'l 2003), vol. 4, pp. 1417–1421, Crete, Greece, June 22–27, 2003.


Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi)

[22]  Bahl, P. and V. N. Padmanabhan, “RADAR: An In-Building RF-based User Location and Tracking System Proc. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM 2000), vol. 2, pp. 775–784, 2000.


Cellular Telecommunications Systems

[23]  Wang, S. S., M. Green, and M. Malkawa, “E-911 location standards and location commercial services IEEE Emerging Technologies Symposium: Broadband, Wireless Internet Access, April 10–11, 2000.

[24]  Djuknic, G. and R. Richton, “Geolocation and assisted GPS IEEE Computer, vol. 34(2), pp. 123–125, 2001.

[25]  Soliman, S., P. Agashe, I. Fernandez, A. Vayanos, P. Gaal, and M. Oljaca, “gpsOne(TM): A Hybrid Position Location System Proc. IEEE 6th Int'l Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications, vol. 1, pp. 330–335, Sept. 6–8, 2000.


Global Positioning System (GPS)

[26]  Enge, P. and P. Misra, “Scanning the Issue/Technology, Special Issue on Global Positioning System Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 87(1), pp. 3–15, 1999.




[27]  Golding, A. R. and N. Lesh, “Indoor Navigation Using a Diverse Set of Cheap, Wearable Sensors Proc. IEEE Int'l Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC '99), pp. 29–36, 1999.