author = {Steven M. Bellovin},
  date = {2023-06-27},
  date-added = {2023-07-03 22:39:32 -0400},
  date-modified = {2023-07-03 22:40:24 -0400},
  howpublished = {In submission},
  month = {June},
  title = {Netnews: The Origin Story},
  url = {https://www.cs.columbia.edu/~smb/papers/netnews-hist.pdf},
  year = {2023},
  bdsk-url-1 = {https://www.cs.columbia.edu/~smb/papers/netnews-hist.pdf}
  abstract = {New information has been discovered about Frank Miller's
		  1882 one-time pad. These documents explain Miller's threat
		  model and show that he had a reasonably deep understanding
		  of the problem; they also suggest that his scheme was used
		  more than had been supposed.},
  author = {Steven M. Bellovin},
  date-added = {2017-01-02 22:08:42 +0000},
  date-modified = {2017-01-02 22:09:39 +0000},
  journal = {Cryptologia},
  note = {To appear},
  title = {Further Information on {Miller's} 1882 One-Time Pad},
  year = {2017},
  bdsk-url-1 = {https://mice.cs.columbia.edu/getTechreport.php?techreportID=1626}
  abstract = {The conventional narrative for the invention of the
		  AT{\&}T one-time pad was related by David Kahn. Based on
		  the evidence available in the AT{\&}T patent files and from
		  interviews and correspondence, he concluded that Gilbert
		  Vernam came up with the need for randomness, while Joseph
		  Mauborgne realized the need for a non-repeating key.
		  Examination of other documents suggests a different
		  narrative. It is most likely that Vernam came up with the
		  need for non-repetition; Mauborgne, though, apparently
		  contributed materially to the invention of the two-tape
		  variant. Furthermore, there is reason to suspect that he
		  suggested the need for randomness to Vernam. However,
		  neither Mauborgne, Herbert Yardley, nor anyone at AT{\&}T
		  really understood the security advantages of the true
		  one-time tape. Col. Parker Hitt may have; William Friedman
		  definitely did. Finally, we show that Friedman's attacks on
		  the two-tape variant likely led to his invention of the
		  index of coincidence, arguably the single most important
		  publication in the history of cryptanalysis. },
  author = {Steven M. Bellovin},
  booktitle = {The New Codebreakers: Essays Dedicated to {David Kahn} on
		  the Occasion of His 85th Birthday},
  date-added = {2016-04-05 01:58:08 +0000},
  date-modified = {2018-05-26 18:53:37 +0000},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-662-49301-4_4},
  editor = {Peter Y. A. Ryan and David Naccache and Jean-Jacques
  publisher = {Springer},
  title = {{Vernam, Mauborgne, and Friedman}: The One-Time Pad and
		  the Index of Coincidence},
  year = {2016},
  bdsk-url-1 = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-49301-4_4}
  abstract = {It has long been known that George Fabyan's Riverbank
		  Laboratories provided the U.S. military with cryptanalytic
		  and training services during World War~I. The relationship
		  has always be seen as voluntary. Newly discovered evidence
		  raises the question of whether Fabyan was in fact paid, at
		  least in part, for his services, but available records do
		  not provide a definitive answer. },
  author = {Steven M. Bellovin},
  date-modified = {2017-01-12 22:10:31 +0000},
  journal = {Cryptologia},
  note = {To appear},
  title = {Mysterious Checks from {Mauborgne} to {Fabyan}},
  year = {2017}
  abstract = {The invention of the one-time pad is generally credited to
		  Gilbert S. Vernam and Joseph O. Mauborgne. We show that it
		  was invented about 35 years earlier by a Sacramento banker
		  named Frank Miller. We provide a tentative identification
		  of which Frank Miller it was, and speculate on whether or
		  not Mauborgne might have known of Miller's work, especially
		  via his colleague Parker Hitt.},
  author = {Steven M. Bellovin},
  date = {2011-07},
  date-modified = {2023-08-04 18:17:46 -0400},
  institution = {Department of Computer Science, Columbia University},
  journal = {Cryptologia},
  month = {July},
  note = {An earlier version is available as technical report
  number = {3},
  pages = {203--222},
  title = {{Frank Miller}: Inventor of the One-Time Pad},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01611194.2011.583711},
  volume = {35},
  year = {2011},
  bdsk-url-1 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01611194.2011.583711}
  abstract = {Amidst the many public discussions springing from the
		  Edward Snowden documents, one has been about the perceived
		  change in the NSA's practices: they're now hacking
		  computers instead of tapping wires and listening to radio
		  signals. Looked at narrowly---that is, in terms of only
		  NSA's mission---that may be true. Looked at more broadly,
		  in terms of how intelligence agencies have always behaved,
		  this is no surprise at all. They've long used only two
		  criteria when evaluating a proposed tactic: does it work,
		  and at what cost?},
  author = {Steven M. Bellovin},
  date = {2014-07/2014-08},
  date-added = {2014-07-21 03:20:37 +0000},
  date-modified = {2014-08-14 02:45:56 +0000},
  journal = {{IEEE} Security \& Privacy},
  month = {July--August},
  number = {4},
  title = {By Any Means Possible: How Intelligence Agencies Have
		  Gotten Their Data},
  url = {https://www.cs.columbia.edu/~smb/papers/possible.pdf},
  volume = {12},
  year = {2014},
  bdsk-url-1 = {https://www.cs.columbia.edu/~smb/papers/possible.pdf}