Homework 1
W4118 Fall 2022
DUE: 9/21/22 @ 11:59PM

All homework submissions are to be made via Git. You must submit a detailed list of references as part your homework submission indicating clearly what sources you referenced for each homework problem. You do not need to cite the course textbooks and instructional staff. All other sources must be cited. Please edit and include this file in the top-level directory of your homework submission. Homeworks submitted without this file will not be graded.

Before You Begin Programming

Before you begin the programming for this assignment, you must first do two things: get access to GitHub and setup a VMware virtual machine (VM) that you will use for your development work.

You will be using Git via GitHub for course submissions for the class. Please make sure you sign up for a GitHub account if you do not yet have one, and follow the instructions for the W4118 GitHub organization, including filling out the Google Form listed there so that we can associate your GitHub username with your Columbia UNI. Once you have a GitHub account and login, you can create your GitHub repository for this assignment. The GitHub repository you will use can be cloned using git clone git@github.com:W4118/f22-hmwk1-UserName.git (Replace UserName with your own GitHub username). Be aware that commits pushed after the deadline will not be considered. Refer to the homework policy section on the class web site for further details.

You will be using a VM that you will setup for all homework assignments. Follow the instructions provided to setup a VM using the Debian Linux distribution we will use for this class.

Programming Problems

For all programming problems you will be required to submit source code, a Makefile, a README file documenting your files and code, and a test run of your programs. The README should explain any way in which your solution differs from what was assigned, and any assumptions you made. For this assignment, you will have a separate subdirectory for each part of the assignment, and each subdirectory should contain its own Makefile and source code. You must provide a Makefile for each part of this assignment. The README should be placed in the top level directory of your GitHub repository for this assignment. Refer to the homework submission page on the class web site for additional submission instructions. In addition, please pay attention to the additional requirements listed at the bottom of this assignment.

Simple Shell and OS

Part 1: The Simple Shell

An operating system like Linux makes it easy to run programs. For example, from a shell, it is easy to write, compile, and run a simple hello world C program:

$vi hello.c
#include <stdio.h>
int main() { printf("hello, world\n"); }
$gcc hello.c -o hello
$./hello
hello, world
The operating system makes this easy by providing various functions to enable the program to perform I/O such as printing, and the shell to execute the program in response to typing the program executable name at the shell prompt. The shell itself is just another program. For example, the Bash shell is an executable named bash that is usually located in the /bin directory. So, /bin/bash.

Try running /bin/bash or just bash on a Linux (or BSD-based, such as Mac OS X) operating system's command line, and you'll likely discover that it will successfully run just like any other program. Type exit to end your shell session and return to your usual shell. (If your system doesn't have Bash, try running sh instead.) When you log into a computer, this is essentially what happens: Bash is executed. The only special thing about logging in is that a special entry in /etc/passwd determines what shell runs at log in time.

Write a simple shell in C. The requirements are as follows.

  1. Your shell executable should be named w4118_sh. Your shell source code should be mainly in shell.c, but you are free to add additional source code files as long as your Makefile works, and compiles and generates an executable named w4118_sh in the same top level directory as the Makefile. If we cannot simply run make and then w4118_sh, you will be heavily penalized.
  2. The shell should run continuously, and display a prompt when waiting for input. The prompt should be EXACTLY '$'. No spaces, no extra characters. Example with a command:
    $/bin/ls -lha /home/w4118/my_docs
  3. Your shell should read a line from stdin one at a time. This line should be parsed out into a command and all its arguments. In other words, tokenize it.

    • You may assume that the only supported delimiter is the whitespace character (ASCII character number 32).
    • You do not need to handle "special" characters. Do not worry about handling quotation marks, backslashes, and tab characters. This means your shell will be unable support arguments with spaces in them. For example, your shell will not support file paths with spaces in them.
    • You may set a reasonable maximum on the number of command line arguments, but your shell should handle input lines of any length. You may find getline() useful.

  4. After parsing and lexing the command, your shell should execute it. A command can either be a reference to an executable OR a built-in shell command (see below). For now, just focus on running executables, and not on built-in commands.

    • Executing commands that are not shell built-ins is done by invoking fork() and then invoking exec().
    • You may NOT use the system() function, as it just invokes the /bin/sh shell to do all the work.

  5. Implement Built-in Commands, exit and cd. exit simply exits your shell after performing any necessary clean up. cd [dir], short for "change directory", changes the current working directory of your shell. Do not worry about implementing the command line options that the real cd command has in Bash. Just implement cd such that it takes a single command line parameter: the directory to change to. cd should be done by invoking chdir().
  6. Error messages should be printed using exactly one of two string formats. The first format is for errors where errno is set. The second format is for when errno is not set, in which case you may provide any error text message you like on a single line.
    "error: %s\n", strerror(errno)
    
    OR
    
    "error: %s\n", "your error message"

    So for example, you would likely use: fprintf(stderr, "error: %s\n", strerror(errno));

  7. Check the return values of all functions utilizing system resources. Do not blithely assume all requests for memory will succeed and all writes to a file will occur correctly. Your code should handle errors properly. Many failed function calls should not be fatal to a program.

    Typically, a system call will return -1 in the case of an error (malloc will return NULL). If a function call sets the errno variable (see the function's man page to find out if it does), you should use the first error message as described above. As far as system calls are concerned, you will want to use one of the mechanisms described in Reporting Errors or Error Reporting.

  8. A testing script skeleton is provided in a GitHub repository to help you with testing your program. You should make sure your program works correct with this script. For grading purposes, we will conduct much more extensive testing than what is provided with the testing skeleton, so you should make sure to write additional test cases yourself to test your code.

Part 2: Simple Shell Directly Calling System Calls

The simple shell you wrote in Part 1 calls various system calls such as fork(), but also relies on various C library functions that in turn call other system calls. You can use strace to see what system calls are being called when you run simple shell. First, install strace:

sudo apt install strace
Then you can run strace with simple shell:
strace -o trace.txt w4118_sh

which will dump the system calls executed into the file trace.txt. For example, if you used printf() to output text in simple shell, you will find that it in turn calls a system call to actually perform the I/O operation because I/O is controlled by the operating system. C library functions such as printf() are technically not part of the C language, but made possible by relying on functionality provided by the operating system.

To gain a better understanding of how C library functions rely on operating system functionality, modify your simple shell so that it does not call any C library functions that call other system calls. Instead, your simple shell should directly call any system calls that it implicitly uses. For example, your simple shell should not call printf() but instead call write() on STDOUT. Other C library functions that you may also have to replace include getline(), malloc(), etc. You do not have to be overly concerned with efficiency, so you may find it easier to use mmap() instead of sbrk() for any dynamic memory allocation you need to do. For example, you may find it helpful to see this implementation of malloc(). String manipulation functions such as strtok and strcmp do not call system calls and do not need to be replaced.

Note that your implementation of the various functions only has to work specifically for your simple shell. For example, you do not need to implement all functionality supported by printf(), only what functionality is required to print the output that your shell generates. Similarly, your input functionality only needs to work for any ascii characters generated from a keyboard.

Your shell executable should be named w4118_sh2. Your shell source code should be mainly in shell2.c, but you are free to add additional source code files as long as your Makefile works, and compiles and generates an executable named w4118_sh2 in the same top level directory as the Makefile. If we cannot simply run make and then w4118_sh2, you will be heavily penalized. w4118_sh2 should have all the same functionality as w4118_sh, except that it does not call any C library functions that call other system calls.

Part 3: Bare-metal Hello World OS

Without an operating system, running a program on a computer will be harder. When the power button is pressed, the CPU is reset to its initially state and firmware, the BIOS, is executed. The BIOS checks the hardware resources of the computer, loads the first program on the storage device, for example the hard drive, into the RAM and transfers control to the program.

The MBR (Master Boot Record) is first sector (512B) of the persistent storage device which ends with magic number 0x55 and 0xaa at the last two bytes. It holds the initial bootstrap code and all of the necessary information to boot the machine into the operating system. The BIOS reads the first sector of the hard drive and if the sector is an MBR, the BIOS loads it into the RAM at 0x7c00 and starts executing from that position.

Usually, the bootloader is located at the MBR sector and loads the operating system, which can implement more complex functionality. But it is not necessary. A simple operating system can also be loaded directly by the BIOS. The simple operating system can be as simple as a program that prints "hello, world" to the screen. However, the program that is loaded by the BIOS does not, at least initially, have an easy-to-use C environment in which to execute.

  1. Implement the Hello World OS. We provide the starter assembly code entry.S. The starter code sets up a stack to switch from assembly code to C and then calls the main function defined in main.c:
    call main
    Note that this main function is not a standard C main function for general C programs so it does not have to return an integer. The name of the function does not even have to be main, except for the fact that this is the name used in the assembly code. Note that your C code is compiled with various options indicating that it is standalone and does not rely on the standard C library or standard include files which are not available with your simple operating system.

    Modify the file main.c by writing C code to output "hello, world" to the VGA console. Because there is no separate operating system, there are no helper functions to perform I/O. However, the VGA console can be accessed just like regular memory, so you can simply perform regular memory writes to cause output to appear on screen. Specifically, the machine is initially in real mode, which means that memory is accessed directly using physical RAM locations. The framebuffer of the VGA console is mapped so it appears as physical RAM memory starting from 0xb8000. In text mode, you can print out characters by writing ascii codes starting at that position.

    You should print out "hello, world" with white background color and black foreground color at the center of the console. The default VGA console can print 80*25 characters. You should print "hello, world" with the specified color and position it so it is aligned to the center of the console vertically and horizontally, all lower case with the comma after the first word and a space after the comma before the second word.

    The memory for each character on the VGA console is two bytes - one byte for the ascii code and the other for the color. For example, to print "hello, world" to the beginning of the VGA console, you want to write 'h' to 0xb8000, 'e' to 0xb8002, etc. You can modify the second byte to change the color. The color byte can be used to control both the foreground and background color of the character, with the higher 4 bits for the background and the lower 4 bits for the foreground:

    Bit:     | 7 6 5 4 | 3 2 1 0 |
    Content: | BG      | FG      |
    and the color is defined as:
    Color Value Color Value Color Value Color Value
    Black 0 Red 4 Dark grey 8 Light red 12
    Blue 1 Magenta 5 Light blue 9 Light magenta 13
    Green 2 Brown 6 Light green 10 Light brown 14
    Cyan 3 Light grey 7 Light cyan 11 White 15

    However, there are some limitations due the fact that the machine will initially boot in 16-bit real mode, so your code should run in 16-bit mode. This means you will not able to directly access the framebuffer because the starting address for the framebuffer is beyond the addressing limit (ie 0xb8000 > 0xffff). Instead, you will need to use segmentation on x86, in which

    physical address = (segment base * 0x10) + segment offset
    
    We have included the lines of assembly code in main.c that are required to set the segment base, but the lines current set the segment base to 0:
      __asm__("mov $0x0, %ax");
      __asm__("mov %ax, %ds");
    
    You need to modify that code to set the segment base of the starting address so that you can access the framebuffer. After those lines of assembly code, you can then use C code to write characters to the VGA console if you specific the correct addresses based on the fact that the resulting physical address is calculated according to the formula above.

    Note that all of your code in main.c along with the code in entry.S must build and fit in the 512B available for the MBR. You should also not use any global variables or loops of any kind in your C code to write characters to the framebuffer. Once you have finished writing characters to the framebuffer, you need to prevent the machine from going off into undefined behavior. In particular, the assembly code in entry.S does nothing further once the main function returns. Since there are no further instructions specified to run, the CPU will not know what to do and the system will crash if you reach this state. You should ensure that your hello world OS does not let the machine run into this undefined state. A loop of some kind here would be useful.

  2. Create a floppy disk image that holds the Hello World OS. To start the computer from power on without requiring a bootloader, you need to create a new storage device to hold your Hello World OS such that its first sector is an MBR. For this purpose, you can create a floppy disk image such that the last two bytes of the first sector contain the required magic number 0x55. To do this, you will compile your main.c and link it with an assembled entry.S to create the disk image, ensuring that the magic number required is placed in the 511th and 512th bytes of the image. We have provided a linker script that does most of the hard work. The commands you will run to do all this will differ slightly depending on whether you are using an x86 or Arm VM. You will most likely be using an x86 VM unless you are using an M1 or M2 Mac computer, in which case you will be using an Arm VM.

    x86 VM: If you are using an x86 VM, the commands you need to execute are:

    as --32 -o entry.o entry.S
    gcc -c -m16 -ffreestanding -fno-PIE -nostartfiles -nostdlib -o main.o -std=c99 main.c
    ld -m elf_i386 -o main.elf -T linker.ld entry.o main.o
    objcopy -O binary main.elf floppy.flp
    which will create the floppy image floppy.flp, padded with zero bytes at the end beyond the 512th byte.

    Arm VM: If you are using an Arm VM, you will first need to install the cross-compile toolchain in your VM:

    sudo apt install crossbuild-essential-amd64
    
    Then the commands you need to execute are:
    x86_64-linux-gnu-as --32 -o entry.o entry.S
    x86_64-linux-gnu-gcc -c -m16 -ffreestanding -fno-PIE -nostartfiles -nostdlib -o main.o -std=c99 main.c
    x86_64-linux-gnu-ld -m elf_i386 -o main.elf -T linker.ld entry.o main.o
    x86_64-linux-gnu-objcopy -O binary main.elf floppy.flp
    which will cross-compile the x86 code in your Arm VM and create the floppy image floppy.flp, padded with zero bytes at the end beyond the 512th byte.
  3. Use your floppy image to boot the VM. If you have an x86 VM, you can reboot the VM using your floppy image. Copy the floppy image from your VM to your host computer. Shutdown your VM and open settings of the VM. Add a new floppy drive then select the floppy image you just copied from your VM. Then change the startup device to the floppy drive. You should be able to boot your VM with the Hello World OS you just built.
  4. Using your floppy image to boot in QEMU. If you are using an Arm VM, such as an M1 or M2 Mac, you will not be able to boot the VM using the floppy image. Instead, you can use QEMU from within your Arm VM. QEMU is a machine emulator that can run x86 code on Arm hardware. In your VM, first install QEMU:
    sudo apt install qemu qemu-utils qemu-system-x86 qemu-system-gui
    
    Then you can use the floppy image to boot an x86 machine using QEMU:
    sudo qemu-system-x86_64 -drive file=floppy.flp,format=raw -vga std
    
    Note that the options for this QEMU command require access to the graphical user interface of the VM and so will not work over SSH. Other than the cross-compilation and using QEMU instead of rebooting the VM using the floppy, the other instructions are the same as before. You should be able to boot using QEMU with the Hello World OS you built and see "hello, world" printed on your console.

    Additional Requirements

  1. All code (including test programs) must be written in C.
  2. Make at least ten commits with Git. The point is to make incremental changes and use an iterative development cycle.
  3. Follow the following coding style rules:
    • Tab size: 8 spaces.
    • Do not have more that 3 levels of indentations (unless the function is extremely simple).
    • Do not have lines that goes after the 80th column (with rare exceptions).
    • Do not comment your code to say obvious things. Use /* ... */ and not // ...
    • Follow the Linux kernel coding style. Use checkpatch, a script which checks coding style rules.
  4. Use a makefile to control the compilation of your code. The makefile should have at least a default target that builds all assigned programs.
  5. When using gcc to compile your code, use the -Wall switch to ensure that all warnings are displayed. Do not be satisfied with code that merely compiles; it should compile with no warnings. You will lose points if your code produces warnings when compiled.
  6. Check the return values of all functions utilizing system resources for all parts of the programming assignment.
  7. Your code should not have memory leaks and should handle errors gracefully.
  8. Per the Class Collaboration/Copying Policy, please include in your submission a separate references.txt file with a list of references to materials that you used to complete your assignment, including URLs to websites and names of other students you asked for help.

    Tips

  1. For this assignment, your primary reference will be Programming in C. You might also find the Glibc Manual useful.
  2. Many questions about functions and system behaviour can be found in the system manual pages; type in man function to get more information about function. If function is a system call, man 2 function can ensure that you receive the correct man page, rather than one for a system utility of the same name.
  3. If you are having trouble with basic Unix/Linux behavior, you might want to check out the resources section of the class webpage.
  4. A lot of your problems have happened to other people. If you have a strange error message, you might want to try searching for the message on Google.