Although many agree that SfM is fundamentally a nonlinear problem, several attempts at representing it linearly have been made which provide mathematical elegance as well as direct solution methods. On the other hand, nonlinear techniques require iterative optimization and must contend with local minima. However, they promise good numerical accuracy and flexibility.

- Perspective Camera Models
- Algebraic Projective Geometry
- Epipolar Geometry
- The Trifocal Tensor
- Application to Motion
- Tomasi-Kanade Factorization