%!PS-Adobe-3.0
%%BoundingBox: (atend)
%%Pages: (atend)
%%PageOrder: (atend)
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%Creator: Frame 4.0
%%DocumentData: Clean7Bit
%%EndComments
%%BeginProlog
%
% Frame ps_prolog 4.0, for use with Frame 4.0 products
% This ps_prolog file is Copyright (c) 1986-1993 Frame Technology
% Corporation. All rights reserved. This ps_prolog file may be
% freely copied and distributed in conjunction with documents created
% using FrameMaker, FrameBuilder and FrameViewer as long as this
% copyright notice is preserved.
%
% Frame products normally print colors as their true color on a color printer
% or as shades of gray, based on luminance, on a black-and white printer. The
% following flag, if set to True, forces all non-white colors to print as pure
% black. This has no effect on bitmap images.
/FMPrintAllColorsAsBlack false def
%
% Frame products can either set their own line screens or use a printer's
% default settings. Three flags below control this separately for no
% separations, spot separations and process separations. If a flag
% is true, then the default printer settings will not be changed. If it is
% false, Frame products will use their own settings from a table based on
% the printer's resolution.
/FMUseDefaultNoSeparationScreen true def
/FMUseDefaultSpotSeparationScreen true def
/FMUseDefaultProcessSeparationScreen false def
%
% For any given PostScript printer resolution, Frame products have two sets of
% screen angles and frequencies for printing process separations, which are
% recomended by Adobe. The following variable chooses the higher frequencies
% when set to true or the lower frequencies when set to false. This is only
% effective if the appropriate FMUseDefault...SeparationScreen flag is false.
/FMUseHighFrequencyScreens true def
%
% PostScript Level 2 printers contain an "Accurate Screens" feature which can
% improve process separation rendering at the expense of compute time. This
% flag is ignored by PostScript Level 1 printers.
/FMUseAcccurateScreens true def
%
% The following PostScript procedure defines the spot function that Frame
% products will use for process separations. You may un-comment-out one of
% the alternative functions below, or use your own.
%
% Dot function
/FMSpotFunction {abs exch abs 2 copy add 1 gt
{1 sub dup mul exch 1 sub dup mul add 1 sub }
{dup mul exch dup mul add 1 exch sub }ifelse } def
%
% Line function
% /FMSpotFunction { pop } def
%
% Elipse function
% /FMSpotFunction { dup 5 mul 8 div mul exch dup mul exch add
% sqrt 1 exch sub } def
%
%
/FMversion (4.0) def
/FMLevel1 /languagelevel where {pop languagelevel} {1} ifelse 2 lt def
/FMPColor
FMLevel1 {
false
/colorimage where {pop pop true} if
} {
true
} ifelse
def
/FrameDict 400 dict def
systemdict /errordict known not {/errordict 10 dict def
errordict /rangecheck {stop} put} if
% The readline in PS 23.0 doesn't recognize cr's as nl's on AppleTalk
FrameDict /tmprangecheck errordict /rangecheck get put
errordict /rangecheck {FrameDict /bug true put} put
FrameDict /bug false put
mark
% Some PS machines read past the CR, so keep the following 3 lines together!
currentfile 5 string readline
00
0000000000
cleartomark
errordict /rangecheck FrameDict /tmprangecheck get put
FrameDict /bug get {
/readline {
/gstring exch def
/gfile exch def
/gindex 0 def
{
gfile read pop
dup 10 eq {exit} if
dup 13 eq {exit} if
gstring exch gindex exch put
/gindex gindex 1 add def
} loop
pop
gstring 0 gindex getinterval true
} bind def
} if
/FMshowpage /showpage load def
/FMquit /quit load def
/FMFAILURE {
dup = flush
FMshowpage
/Helvetica findfont 12 scalefont setfont
72 200 moveto
show FMshowpage
FMquit
} def
/FMVERSION {
FMversion ne {
(Frame product version does not match ps_prolog!) FMFAILURE
} if
} def
/FMBADEPSF {
(PostScript Lang. Ref. Man., 2nd Ed., H.2.4 says EPS must not call X )
dup dup (X) search pop exch pop exch pop length
4 -1 roll
putinterval
FMFAILURE
} def
/FMLOCAL {
FrameDict begin
0 def
end
} def
/concatprocs
{
/proc2 exch cvlit def/proc1 exch cvlit def/newproc proc1 length proc2 length add array def
newproc 0 proc1 putinterval newproc proc1 length proc2 putinterval newproc cvx
}def
FrameDict begin
/FMnone 0 def
/FMcyan 1 def
/FMmagenta 2 def
/FMyellow 3 def
/FMblack 4 def
/FMcustom 5 def
/FrameNegative false def
/FrameSepIs FMnone def
/FrameSepBlack 0 def
/FrameSepYellow 0 def
/FrameSepMagenta 0 def
/FrameSepCyan 0 def
/FrameSepRed 1 def
/FrameSepGreen 1 def
/FrameSepBlue 1 def
/FrameCurGray 1 def
/FrameCurPat null def
/FrameCurColors [ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ] def
/FrameColorEpsilon .001 def
/eqepsilon {
sub dup 0 lt {neg} if
FrameColorEpsilon le
} bind def
/FrameCmpColorsCMYK {
2 copy 0 get exch 0 get eqepsilon {
2 copy 1 get exch 1 get eqepsilon {
2 copy 2 get exch 2 get eqepsilon {
3 get exch 3 get eqepsilon
} {pop pop false} ifelse
}{pop pop false} ifelse
} {pop pop false} ifelse
} bind def
/FrameCmpColorsRGB {
2 copy 4 get exch 0 get eqepsilon {
2 copy 5 get exch 1 get eqepsilon {
6 get exch 2 get eqepsilon
}{pop pop false} ifelse
} {pop pop false} ifelse
} bind def
/RGBtoCMYK {
1 exch sub
3 1 roll
1 exch sub
3 1 roll
1 exch sub
3 1 roll
3 copy
2 copy
le { pop } { exch pop } ifelse
2 copy
le { pop } { exch pop } ifelse
dup dup dup
6 1 roll
4 1 roll
7 1 roll
sub
6 1 roll
sub
5 1 roll
sub
4 1 roll
} bind def
/CMYKtoRGB {
dup dup 4 -1 roll add
5 1 roll 3 -1 roll add
4 1 roll add
1 exch sub dup 0 lt {pop 0} if 3 1 roll
1 exch sub dup 0 lt {pop 0} if exch
1 exch sub dup 0 lt {pop 0} if exch
} bind def
/FrameSepInit {
1.0 RealSetgray
} bind def
/FrameSetSepColor {
/FrameSepBlue exch def
/FrameSepGreen exch def
/FrameSepRed exch def
/FrameSepBlack exch def
/FrameSepYellow exch def
/FrameSepMagenta exch def
/FrameSepCyan exch def
/FrameSepIs FMcustom def
setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/FrameSetCyan {
/FrameSepBlue 1.0 def
/FrameSepGreen 1.0 def
/FrameSepRed 0.0 def
/FrameSepBlack 0.0 def
/FrameSepYellow 0.0 def
/FrameSepMagenta 0.0 def
/FrameSepCyan 1.0 def
/FrameSepIs FMcyan def
setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/FrameSetMagenta {
/FrameSepBlue 1.0 def
/FrameSepGreen 0.0 def
/FrameSepRed 1.0 def
/FrameSepBlack 0.0 def
/FrameSepYellow 0.0 def
/FrameSepMagenta 1.0 def
/FrameSepCyan 0.0 def
/FrameSepIs FMmagenta def
setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/FrameSetYellow {
/FrameSepBlue 0.0 def
/FrameSepGreen 1.0 def
/FrameSepRed 1.0 def
/FrameSepBlack 0.0 def
/FrameSepYellow 1.0 def
/FrameSepMagenta 0.0 def
/FrameSepCyan 0.0 def
/FrameSepIs FMyellow def
setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/FrameSetBlack {
/FrameSepBlue 0.0 def
/FrameSepGreen 0.0 def
/FrameSepRed 0.0 def
/FrameSepBlack 1.0 def
/FrameSepYellow 0.0 def
/FrameSepMagenta 0.0 def
/FrameSepCyan 0.0 def
/FrameSepIs FMblack def
setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/FrameNoSep {
/FrameSepIs FMnone def
setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/FrameSetSepColors {
FrameDict begin
[ exch 1 add 1 roll ]
/FrameSepColors
exch def end
} bind def
/FrameColorInSepListCMYK {
FrameSepColors {
exch dup 3 -1 roll
FrameCmpColorsCMYK
{ pop true exit } if
} forall
dup true ne {pop false} if
} bind def
/FrameColorInSepListRGB {
FrameSepColors {
exch dup 3 -1 roll
FrameCmpColorsRGB
{ pop true exit } if
} forall
dup true ne {pop false} if
} bind def
/RealSetgray /setgray load def
/RealSetrgbcolor /setrgbcolor load def
/RealSethsbcolor /sethsbcolor load def
end
/setgray {
FrameDict begin
FrameSepIs FMnone eq
{ RealSetgray }
{
FrameSepIs FMblack eq
{ RealSetgray }
{ FrameSepIs FMcustom eq
FrameSepRed 0 eq and
FrameSepGreen 0 eq and
FrameSepBlue 0 eq and {
RealSetgray
} {
1 RealSetgray pop
} ifelse
} ifelse
} ifelse
end
} bind def
/setrgbcolor {
FrameDict begin
FrameSepIs FMnone eq
{ RealSetrgbcolor }
{
3 copy [ 4 1 roll ]
FrameColorInSepListRGB
{
FrameSepBlue eq exch
FrameSepGreen eq and exch
FrameSepRed eq and
{ 0 } { 1 } ifelse
}
{
FMPColor {
RealSetrgbcolor
currentcmykcolor
} {
RGBtoCMYK
} ifelse
FrameSepIs FMblack eq
{1.0 exch sub 4 1 roll pop pop pop} {
FrameSepIs FMyellow eq
{pop 1.0 exch sub 3 1 roll pop pop} {
FrameSepIs FMmagenta eq
{pop pop 1.0 exch sub exch pop } {
FrameSepIs FMcyan eq
{pop pop pop 1.0 exch sub }
{pop pop pop pop 1} ifelse } ifelse } ifelse } ifelse
} ifelse
RealSetgray
}
ifelse
end
} bind def
/sethsbcolor {
FrameDict begin
FrameSepIs FMnone eq
{ RealSethsbcolor }
{
RealSethsbcolor
currentrgbcolor
setrgbcolor
}
ifelse
end
} bind def
FrameDict begin
/setcmykcolor where {
pop /RealSetcmykcolor /setcmykcolor load def
} {
/RealSetcmykcolor {
4 1 roll
3 { 3 index add 0 max 1 min 1 exch sub 3 1 roll} repeat
setrgbcolor pop
} bind def
} ifelse
userdict /setcmykcolor {
FrameDict begin
FrameSepIs FMnone eq
{ RealSetcmykcolor }
{
4 copy [ 5 1 roll ]
FrameColorInSepListCMYK
{
FrameSepBlack eq exch
FrameSepYellow eq and exch
FrameSepMagenta eq and exch
FrameSepCyan eq and
{ 0 } { 1 } ifelse
}
{
FrameSepIs FMblack eq
{1.0 exch sub 4 1 roll pop pop pop} {
FrameSepIs FMyellow eq
{pop 1.0 exch sub 3 1 roll pop pop} {
FrameSepIs FMmagenta eq
{pop pop 1.0 exch sub exch pop } {
FrameSepIs FMcyan eq
{pop pop pop 1.0 exch sub }
{pop pop pop pop 1} ifelse } ifelse } ifelse } ifelse
} ifelse
RealSetgray
}
ifelse
end
} bind put
FMLevel1 not {
/patProcDict 5 dict dup begin
<0f1e3c78f0e1c387> { 3 setlinewidth -1 -1 moveto 9 9 lineto stroke
4 -4 moveto 12 4 lineto stroke
-4 4 moveto 4 12 lineto stroke} bind def
<0f87c3e1f0783c1e> { 3 setlinewidth -1 9 moveto 9 -1 lineto stroke
-4 4 moveto 4 -4 lineto stroke
4 12 moveto 12 4 lineto stroke} bind def
<8142241818244281> { 1 setlinewidth -1 9 moveto 9 -1 lineto stroke
-1 -1 moveto 9 9 lineto stroke } bind def
<03060c183060c081> { 1 setlinewidth -1 -1 moveto 9 9 lineto stroke
4 -4 moveto 12 4 lineto stroke
-4 4 moveto 4 12 lineto stroke} bind def
<8040201008040201> { 1 setlinewidth -1 9 moveto 9 -1 lineto stroke
-4 4 moveto 4 -4 lineto stroke
4 12 moveto 12 4 lineto stroke} bind def
end def
/patDict 15 dict dup begin
/PatternType 1 def
/PaintType 2 def
/TilingType 3 def
/BBox [ 0 0 8 8 ] def
/XStep 8 def
/YStep 8 def
/PaintProc {
begin
patProcDict bstring known {
patProcDict bstring get exec
} {
8 8 true [1 0 0 -1 0 8] bstring imagemask
} ifelse
end
} bind def
end def
} if
/combineColor {
FrameSepIs FMnone eq
{
graymode FMLevel1 or not {
[/Pattern [/DeviceCMYK]] setcolorspace
FrameCurColors 0 4 getinterval aload pop FrameCurPat setcolor
} {
FrameCurColors 3 get 1.0 ge {
FrameCurGray RealSetgray
} {
FMPColor graymode and {
0 1 3 {
FrameCurColors exch get
1 FrameCurGray sub mul
} for
RealSetcmykcolor
} {
4 1 6 {
FrameCurColors exch get
graymode {
1 exch sub 1 FrameCurGray sub mul 1 exch sub
} {
1.0 lt {FrameCurGray} {1} ifelse
} ifelse
} for
RealSetrgbcolor
} ifelse
} ifelse
} ifelse
} {
FrameCurColors 0 4 getinterval aload
FrameColorInSepListCMYK {
FrameSepBlack eq exch
FrameSepYellow eq and exch
FrameSepMagenta eq and exch
FrameSepCyan eq and
FrameSepIs FMcustom eq and
{ FrameCurGray } { 1 } ifelse
} {
FrameSepIs FMblack eq
{FrameCurGray 1.0 exch sub mul 1.0 exch sub 4 1 roll pop pop pop} {
FrameSepIs FMyellow eq
{pop FrameCurGray 1.0 exch sub mul 1.0 exch sub 3 1 roll pop pop} {
FrameSepIs FMmagenta eq
{pop pop FrameCurGray 1.0 exch sub mul 1.0 exch sub exch pop } {
FrameSepIs FMcyan eq
{pop pop pop FrameCurGray 1.0 exch sub mul 1.0 exch sub }
{pop pop pop pop 1} ifelse } ifelse } ifelse } ifelse
} ifelse
graymode FMLevel1 or not {
[/Pattern [/DeviceGray]] setcolorspace
FrameCurPat setcolor
} {
graymode not FMLevel1 and {
dup 1 lt {pop FrameCurGray} if
} if
RealSetgray
} ifelse
} ifelse
} bind def
/savematrix {
orgmatrix currentmatrix pop
} bind def
/restorematrix {
orgmatrix setmatrix
} bind def
/dmatrix matrix def
/dpi 72 0 dmatrix defaultmatrix dtransform
dup mul exch dup mul add sqrt def
/freq dpi dup 72 div round dup 0 eq {pop 1} if 8 mul div def
/sangle 1 0 dmatrix defaultmatrix dtransform exch atan def
/dpiranges [ 2540 2400 1693 1270 1200 635 600 0 ] def
/CMLowFreqs [ 100.402 94.8683 89.2289 100.402 94.8683 66.9349 63.2456 47.4342 ] def
/YLowFreqs [ 95.25 90.0 84.65 95.25 90.0 70.5556 66.6667 50.0 ] def
/KLowFreqs [ 89.8026 84.8528 79.8088 89.8026 84.8528 74.8355 70.7107 53.033 ] def
/CLowAngles [ 71.5651 71.5651 71.5651 71.5651 71.5651 71.5651 71.5651 71.5651 ] def
/MLowAngles [ 18.4349 18.4349 18.4349 18.4349 18.4349 18.4349 18.4349 18.4349 ] def
/YLowTDot [ true true false true true false false false ] def
/CMHighFreqs [ 133.87 126.491 133.843 108.503 102.523 100.402 94.8683 63.2456 ] def
/YHighFreqs [ 127.0 120.0 126.975 115.455 109.091 95.25 90.0 60.0 ] def
/KHighFreqs [ 119.737 113.137 119.713 128.289 121.218 89.8026 84.8528 63.6395 ] def
/CHighAngles [ 71.5651 71.5651 71.5651 70.0169 70.0169 71.5651 71.5651 71.5651 ] def
/MHighAngles [ 18.4349 18.4349 18.4349 19.9831 19.9831 18.4349 18.4349 18.4349 ] def
/YHighTDot [ false false true false false true true false ] def
/PatFreq [ 10.5833 10.0 9.4055 10.5833 10.0 10.5833 10.0 9.375 ] def
/screenIndex {
0 1 dpiranges length 1 sub { dup dpiranges exch get 1 sub dpi le {exit} {pop} ifelse } for
} bind def
/getCyanScreen {
FMUseHighFrequencyScreens { CHighAngles CMHighFreqs} {CLowAngles CMLowFreqs} ifelse
screenIndex dup 3 1 roll get 3 1 roll get /FMSpotFunction load
} bind def
/getMagentaScreen {
FMUseHighFrequencyScreens { MHighAngles CMHighFreqs } {MLowAngles CMLowFreqs} ifelse
screenIndex dup 3 1 roll get 3 1 roll get /FMSpotFunction load
} bind def
/getYellowScreen {
FMUseHighFrequencyScreens { YHighTDot YHighFreqs} { YLowTDot YLowFreqs } ifelse
screenIndex dup 3 1 roll get 3 1 roll get { 3 div
{2 { 1 add 2 div 3 mul dup floor sub 2 mul 1 sub exch} repeat
FMSpotFunction } } {/FMSpotFunction load } ifelse
0.0 exch
} bind def
/getBlackScreen {
FMUseHighFrequencyScreens { KHighFreqs } { KLowFreqs } ifelse
screenIndex get 45.0 /FMSpotFunction load
} bind def
/getSpotScreen {
getBlackScreen
} bind def
/getCompositeScreen {
getBlackScreen
} bind def
/FMSetScreen
FMLevel1 { /setscreen load
}{ {
8 dict begin
/HalftoneType 1 def
/SpotFunction exch def
/Angle exch def
/Frequency exch def
/AccurateScreens FMUseAcccurateScreens def
currentdict end sethalftone
} bind } ifelse
def
/setDefaultScreen {
FMPColor {
orgrxfer cvx orggxfer cvx orgbxfer cvx orgxfer cvx setcolortransfer
}
{
orgxfer cvx settransfer
} ifelse
orgfreq organgle orgproc cvx setscreen
} bind def
/setCurrentScreen {
FrameSepIs FMnone eq {
FMUseDefaultNoSeparationScreen {
setDefaultScreen
} {
getCompositeScreen FMSetScreen
} ifelse
} {
FrameSepIs FMcustom eq {
FMUseDefaultSpotSeparationScreen {
setDefaultScreen
} {
getSpotScreen FMSetScreen
} ifelse
} {
FMUseDefaultProcessSeparationScreen {
setDefaultScreen
} {
FrameSepIs FMcyan eq {
getCyanScreen FMSetScreen
} {
FrameSepIs FMmagenta eq {
getMagentaScreen FMSetScreen
} {
FrameSepIs FMyellow eq {
getYellowScreen FMSetScreen
} {
getBlackScreen FMSetScreen
} ifelse
} ifelse
} ifelse
} ifelse
} ifelse
} ifelse
} bind def
end
/gstring FMLOCAL
/gfile FMLOCAL
/gindex FMLOCAL
/orgrxfer FMLOCAL
/orggxfer FMLOCAL
/orgbxfer FMLOCAL
/orgxfer FMLOCAL
/orgproc FMLOCAL
/orgrproc FMLOCAL
/orggproc FMLOCAL
/orgbproc FMLOCAL
/organgle FMLOCAL
/orgrangle FMLOCAL
/orggangle FMLOCAL
/orgbangle FMLOCAL
/orgfreq FMLOCAL
/orgrfreq FMLOCAL
/orggfreq FMLOCAL
/orgbfreq FMLOCAL
/yscale FMLOCAL
/xscale FMLOCAL
/edown FMLOCAL
/manualfeed FMLOCAL
/paperheight FMLOCAL
/paperwidth FMLOCAL
/FMDOCUMENT {
array /FMfonts exch def
/#copies exch def
FrameDict begin
0 ne /manualfeed exch def
/paperheight exch def
/paperwidth exch def
0 ne /FrameNegative exch def
0 ne /edown exch def
/yscale exch def
/xscale exch def
FMLevel1 {
manualfeed {setmanualfeed} if
/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def
/FMoptop count def
setpapername
manualfeed {true} {papersize} ifelse
{manualpapersize} {false} ifelse
{desperatepapersize} {false} ifelse
{ (Can't select requested paper size for Frame print job!) FMFAILURE } if
count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for
countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for
}
{{1 dict dup /PageSize [paperwidth paperheight]put setpagedevice}stopped
{ (Can't select requested paper size for Frame print job!) FMFAILURE } if
{1 dict dup /ManualFeed manualfeed put setpagedevice } stopped pop }
ifelse
FMPColor {
currentcolorscreen
cvlit /orgproc exch def
/organgle exch def
/orgfreq exch def
cvlit /orgbproc exch def
/orgbangle exch def
/orgbfreq exch def
cvlit /orggproc exch def
/orggangle exch def
/orggfreq exch def
cvlit /orgrproc exch def
/orgrangle exch def
/orgrfreq exch def
currentcolortransfer
FrameNegative {
1 1 4 {
pop { 1 exch sub } concatprocs 4 1 roll
} for
4 copy
setcolortransfer
} if
cvlit /orgxfer exch def
cvlit /orgbxfer exch def
cvlit /orggxfer exch def
cvlit /orgrxfer exch def
} {
currentscreen
cvlit /orgproc exch def
/organgle exch def
/orgfreq exch def
currenttransfer
FrameNegative {
{ 1 exch sub } concatprocs
dup settransfer
} if
cvlit /orgxfer exch def
} ifelse
end
} def
/pagesave FMLOCAL
/orgmatrix FMLOCAL
/landscape FMLOCAL
/pwid FMLOCAL
/FMBEGINPAGE {
FrameDict begin
/pagesave save def
3.86 setmiterlimit
/landscape exch 0 ne def
landscape {
90 rotate 0 exch dup /pwid exch def neg translate pop
}{
pop /pwid exch def
} ifelse
edown { [-1 0 0 1 pwid 0] concat } if
0 0 moveto paperwidth 0 lineto paperwidth paperheight lineto
0 paperheight lineto 0 0 lineto 1 setgray fill
xscale yscale scale
/orgmatrix matrix def
gsave
} def
/FMENDPAGE {
grestore
pagesave restore
end
showpage
} def
/FMFONTDEFINE {
FrameDict begin
findfont
ReEncode
1 index exch
definefont
FMfonts 3 1 roll
put
end
} def
/FMFILLS {
FrameDict begin dup
array /fillvals exch def
dict /patCache exch def
end
} def
/FMFILL {
FrameDict begin
fillvals 3 1 roll put
end
} def
/FMNORMALIZEGRAPHICS {
newpath
0.0 0.0 moveto
1 setlinewidth
0 setlinecap
0 0 0 sethsbcolor
0 setgray
} bind def
/fx FMLOCAL
/fy FMLOCAL
/fh FMLOCAL
/fw FMLOCAL
/llx FMLOCAL
/lly FMLOCAL
/urx FMLOCAL
/ury FMLOCAL
/FMBEGINEPSF {
end
/FMEPSF save def
/showpage {} def
% See Adobe's "PostScript Language Reference Manual, 2nd Edition", page 714.
% "...the following operators MUST NOT be used in an EPS file:" (emphasis ours)
/banddevice {(banddevice) FMBADEPSF} def
/clear {(clear) FMBADEPSF} def
/cleardictstack {(cleardictstack) FMBADEPSF} def
/copypage {(copypage) FMBADEPSF} def
/erasepage {(erasepage) FMBADEPSF} def
/exitserver {(exitserver) FMBADEPSF} def
/framedevice {(framedevice) FMBADEPSF} def
/grestoreall {(grestoreall) FMBADEPSF} def
/initclip {(initclip) FMBADEPSF} def
/initgraphics {(initgraphics) FMBADEPSF} def
/initmatrix {(initmatrix) FMBADEPSF} def
/quit {(quit) FMBADEPSF} def
/renderbands {(renderbands) FMBADEPSF} def
/setglobal {(setglobal) FMBADEPSF} def
/setpagedevice {(setpagedevice) FMBADEPSF} def
/setshared {(setshared) FMBADEPSF} def
/startjob {(startjob) FMBADEPSF} def
/lettertray {(lettertray) FMBADEPSF} def
/letter {(letter) FMBADEPSF} def
/lettersmall {(lettersmall) FMBADEPSF} def
/11x17tray {(11x17tray) FMBADEPSF} def
/11x17 {(11x17) FMBADEPSF} def
/ledgertray {(ledgertray) FMBADEPSF} def
/ledger {(ledger) FMBADEPSF} def
/legaltray {(legaltray) FMBADEPSF} def
/legal {(legal) FMBADEPSF} def
/statementtray {(statementtray) FMBADEPSF} def
/statement {(statement) FMBADEPSF} def
/executivetray {(executivetray) FMBADEPSF} def
/executive {(executive) FMBADEPSF} def
/a3tray {(a3tray) FMBADEPSF} def
/a3 {(a3) FMBADEPSF} def
/a4tray {(a4tray) FMBADEPSF} def
/a4 {(a4) FMBADEPSF} def
/a4small {(a4small) FMBADEPSF} def
/b4tray {(b4tray) FMBADEPSF} def
/b4 {(b4) FMBADEPSF} def
/b5tray {(b5tray) FMBADEPSF} def
/b5 {(b5) FMBADEPSF} def
FMNORMALIZEGRAPHICS
[/fy /fx /fh /fw /ury /urx /lly /llx] {exch def} forall
fx fw 2 div add fy fh 2 div add translate
rotate
fw 2 div neg fh 2 div neg translate
fw urx llx sub div fh ury lly sub div scale
llx neg lly neg translate
/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def
/FMoptop count def
} bind def
/FMENDEPSF {
count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for
countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for
FMEPSF restore
FrameDict begin
} bind def
FrameDict begin
/setmanualfeed {
%%BeginFeature *ManualFeed True
statusdict /manualfeed true put
%%EndFeature
} bind def
/max {2 copy lt {exch} if pop} bind def
/min {2 copy gt {exch} if pop} bind def
/inch {72 mul} def
/pagedimen {
paperheight sub abs 16 lt exch
paperwidth sub abs 16 lt and
{/papername exch def} {pop} ifelse
} bind def
/papersizedict FMLOCAL
/setpapername {
/papersizedict 14 dict def
papersizedict begin
/papername /unknown def
/Letter 8.5 inch 11.0 inch pagedimen
/LetterSmall 7.68 inch 10.16 inch pagedimen
/Tabloid 11.0 inch 17.0 inch pagedimen
/Ledger 17.0 inch 11.0 inch pagedimen
/Legal 8.5 inch 14.0 inch pagedimen
/Statement 5.5 inch 8.5 inch pagedimen
/Executive 7.5 inch 10.0 inch pagedimen
/A3 11.69 inch 16.5 inch pagedimen
/A4 8.26 inch 11.69 inch pagedimen
/A4Small 7.47 inch 10.85 inch pagedimen
/B4 10.125 inch 14.33 inch pagedimen
/B5 7.16 inch 10.125 inch pagedimen
end
} bind def
/papersize {
papersizedict begin
/Letter {lettertray letter} def
/LetterSmall {lettertray lettersmall} def
/Tabloid {11x17tray 11x17} def
/Ledger {ledgertray ledger} def
/Legal {legaltray legal} def
/Statement {statementtray statement} def
/Executive {executivetray executive} def
/A3 {a3tray a3} def
/A4 {a4tray a4} def
/A4Small {a4tray a4small} def
/B4 {b4tray b4} def
/B5 {b5tray b5} def
/unknown {unknown} def
papersizedict dup papername known {papername} {/unknown} ifelse get
end
statusdict begin stopped end
} bind def
/manualpapersize {
papersizedict begin
/Letter {letter} def
/LetterSmall {lettersmall} def
/Tabloid {11x17} def
/Ledger {ledger} def
/Legal {legal} def
/Statement {statement} def
/Executive {executive} def
/A3 {a3} def
/A4 {a4} def
/A4Small {a4small} def
/B4 {b4} def
/B5 {b5} def
/unknown {unknown} def
papersizedict dup papername known {papername} {/unknown} ifelse get
end
stopped
} bind def
/desperatepapersize {
statusdict /setpageparams known
{
paperwidth paperheight 0 1
statusdict begin
{setpageparams} stopped
end
} {true} ifelse
} bind def
/DiacriticEncoding [
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /space /exclam /quotedbl
/numbersign /dollar /percent /ampersand /quotesingle /parenleft
/parenright /asterisk /plus /comma /hyphen /period /slash /zero /one
/two /three /four /five /six /seven /eight /nine /colon /semicolon
/less /equal /greater /question /at /A /B /C /D /E /F /G /H /I /J /K
/L /M /N /O /P /Q /R /S /T /U /V /W /X /Y /Z /bracketleft /backslash
/bracketright /asciicircum /underscore /grave /a /b /c /d /e /f /g /h
/i /j /k /l /m /n /o /p /q /r /s /t /u /v /w /x /y /z /braceleft /bar
/braceright /asciitilde /.notdef /Adieresis /Aring /Ccedilla /Eacute
/Ntilde /Odieresis /Udieresis /aacute /agrave /acircumflex /adieresis
/atilde /aring /ccedilla /eacute /egrave /ecircumflex /edieresis
/iacute /igrave /icircumflex /idieresis /ntilde /oacute /ograve
/ocircumflex /odieresis /otilde /uacute /ugrave /ucircumflex
/udieresis /dagger /.notdef /cent /sterling /section /bullet
/paragraph /germandbls /registered /copyright /trademark /acute
/dieresis /.notdef /AE /Oslash /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/yen /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
/ordfeminine /ordmasculine /.notdef /ae /oslash /questiondown
/exclamdown /logicalnot /.notdef /florin /.notdef /.notdef
/guillemotleft /guillemotright /ellipsis /.notdef /Agrave /Atilde
/Otilde /OE /oe /endash /emdash /quotedblleft /quotedblright
/quoteleft /quoteright /.notdef /.notdef /ydieresis /Ydieresis
/fraction /currency /guilsinglleft /guilsinglright /fi /fl /daggerdbl
/periodcentered /quotesinglbase /quotedblbase /perthousand
/Acircumflex /Ecircumflex /Aacute /Edieresis /Egrave /Iacute
/Icircumflex /Idieresis /Igrave /Oacute /Ocircumflex /.notdef /Ograve
/Uacute /Ucircumflex /Ugrave /dotlessi /circumflex /tilde /macron
/breve /dotaccent /ring /cedilla /hungarumlaut /ogonek /caron
] def
/ReEncode {
dup
length
dict begin
{
1 index /FID ne
{def}
{pop pop} ifelse
} forall
0 eq {/Encoding DiacriticEncoding def} if
currentdict
end
} bind def
FMPColor
{
/BEGINBITMAPCOLOR {
BITMAPCOLOR} def
/BEGINBITMAPCOLORc {
BITMAPCOLORc} def
/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLOR {
BITMAPTRUECOLOR } def
/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLORc {
BITMAPTRUECOLORc } def
}
{
/BEGINBITMAPCOLOR {
BITMAPGRAY} def
/BEGINBITMAPCOLORc {
BITMAPGRAYc} def
/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLOR {
BITMAPTRUEGRAY } def
/BEGINBITMAPTRUECOLORc {
BITMAPTRUEGRAYc } def
}
ifelse
/K {
FMPrintAllColorsAsBlack {
dup 1 eq 2 index 1 eq and 3 index 1 eq and not
{7 {pop} repeat 0 0 0 1 0 0 0} if
} if
FrameCurColors astore
pop combineColor
} bind def
/graymode true def
/bwidth FMLOCAL
/bpside FMLOCAL
/bstring FMLOCAL
/onbits FMLOCAL
/offbits FMLOCAL
/xindex FMLOCAL
/yindex FMLOCAL
/x FMLOCAL
/y FMLOCAL
/setPatternMode {
FMLevel1 {
/bwidth exch def
/bpside exch def
/bstring exch def
/onbits 0 def /offbits 0 def
freq sangle landscape {90 add} if
{/y exch def
/x exch def
/xindex x 1 add 2 div bpside mul cvi def
/yindex y 1 add 2 div bpside mul cvi def
bstring yindex bwidth mul xindex 8 idiv add get
1 7 xindex 8 mod sub bitshift and 0 ne FrameNegative {not} if
{/onbits onbits 1 add def 1}
{/offbits offbits 1 add def 0}
ifelse
}
setscreen
offbits offbits onbits add div FrameNegative {1.0 exch sub} if
/FrameCurGray exch def
} {
pop pop
dup patCache exch known {
patCache exch get
} {
dup
patDict /bstring 3 -1 roll put
patDict
9 PatFreq screenIndex get div dup matrix scale
makepattern
dup
patCache 4 -1 roll 3 -1 roll put
} ifelse
/FrameCurGray 0 def
/FrameCurPat exch def
} ifelse
/graymode false def
combineColor
} bind def
/setGrayScaleMode {
graymode not {
/graymode true def
FMLevel1 {
setCurrentScreen
} if
} if
/FrameCurGray exch def
combineColor
} bind def
/normalize {
transform round exch round exch itransform
} bind def
/dnormalize {
dtransform round exch round exch idtransform
} bind def
/lnormalize {
0 dtransform exch cvi 2 idiv 2 mul 1 add exch idtransform pop
} bind def
/H {
lnormalize setlinewidth
} bind def
/Z {
setlinecap
} bind def
/PFill {
graymode FMLevel1 or not {
gsave 1 setgray eofill grestore
} if
} bind def
/PStroke {
graymode FMLevel1 or not {
gsave 1 setgray stroke grestore
} if
stroke
} bind def
/fillvals FMLOCAL
/X {
fillvals exch get
dup type /stringtype eq
{8 1 setPatternMode}
{setGrayScaleMode}
ifelse
} bind def
/V {
PFill gsave eofill grestore
} bind def
/Vclip {
clip
} bind def
/Vstrk {
currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
} bind def
/N {
PStroke
} bind def
/Nclip {
strokepath clip newpath
} bind def
/Nstrk {
currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
} bind def
/M {newpath moveto} bind def
/E {lineto} bind def
/D {curveto} bind def
/O {closepath} bind def
/n FMLOCAL
/L {
/n exch def
newpath
normalize
moveto
2 1 n {pop normalize lineto} for
} bind def
/Y {
L
closepath
} bind def
/x1 FMLOCAL
/x2 FMLOCAL
/y1 FMLOCAL
/y2 FMLOCAL
/R {
/y2 exch def
/x2 exch def
/y1 exch def
/x1 exch def
x1 y1
x2 y1
x2 y2
x1 y2
4 Y
} bind def
/rad FMLOCAL
/rarc
{rad
arcto
} bind def
/RR {
/rad exch def
normalize
/y2 exch def
/x2 exch def
normalize
/y1 exch def
/x1 exch def
mark
newpath
{
x1 y1 rad add moveto
x1 y2 x2 y2 rarc
x2 y2 x2 y1 rarc
x2 y1 x1 y1 rarc
x1 y1 x1 y2 rarc
closepath
} stopped {x1 y1 x2 y2 R} if
cleartomark
} bind def
/RRR {
/rad exch def
normalize /y4 exch def /x4 exch def
normalize /y3 exch def /x3 exch def
normalize /y2 exch def /x2 exch def
normalize /y1 exch def /x1 exch def
newpath
normalize moveto
mark
{
x2 y2 x3 y3 rarc
x3 y3 x4 y4 rarc
x4 y4 x1 y1 rarc
x1 y1 x2 y2 rarc
closepath
} stopped
{x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4 newpath moveto lineto lineto lineto closepath} if
cleartomark
} bind def
/C {
grestore
gsave
R
clip
setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/CP {
grestore
gsave
Y
clip
setCurrentScreen
} bind def
/FMpointsize FMLOCAL
/F {
FMfonts exch get
FMpointsize scalefont
setfont
} bind def
/Q {
/FMpointsize exch def
F
} bind def
/T {
moveto show
} bind def
/RF {
rotate
0 ne {-1 1 scale} if
} bind def
/TF {
gsave
moveto
RF
show
grestore
} bind def
/P {
moveto
0 32 3 2 roll widthshow
} bind def
/PF {
gsave
moveto
RF
0 32 3 2 roll widthshow
grestore
} bind def
/S {
moveto
0 exch ashow
} bind def
/SF {
gsave
moveto
RF
0 exch ashow
grestore
} bind def
/B {
moveto
0 32 4 2 roll 0 exch awidthshow
} bind def
/BF {
gsave
moveto
RF
0 32 4 2 roll 0 exch awidthshow
grestore
} bind def
/G {
gsave
newpath
normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto
dnormalize scale
0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc
closepath
PFill fill
grestore
} bind def
/Gstrk {
savematrix
newpath
2 index 2 div add exch 3 index 2 div sub exch
normalize 2 index 2 div sub exch 3 index 2 div add exch
translate
scale
0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc
restorematrix
currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
} bind def
/Gclip {
newpath
savematrix
normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto
dnormalize scale
0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc
closepath
clip newpath
restorematrix
} bind def
/GG {
gsave
newpath
normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto
rotate
dnormalize scale
0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc
closepath
PFill
fill
grestore
} bind def
/GGclip {
savematrix
newpath
normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto
rotate
dnormalize scale
0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc
closepath
clip newpath
restorematrix
} bind def
/GGstrk {
savematrix
newpath
normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto
rotate
dnormalize scale
0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc
closepath
restorematrix
currentlinewidth exch setlinewidth PStroke setlinewidth
} bind def
/A {
gsave
savematrix
newpath
2 index 2 div add exch 3 index 2 div sub exch
normalize 2 index 2 div sub exch 3 index 2 div add exch
translate
scale
0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc
restorematrix
PStroke
grestore
} bind def
/Aclip {
newpath
savematrix
normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto
dnormalize scale
0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc
closepath
strokepath clip newpath
restorematrix
} bind def
/Astrk {
Gstrk
} bind def
/AA {
gsave
savematrix
newpath
3 index 2 div add exch 4 index 2 div sub exch
normalize 3 index 2 div sub exch 4 index 2 div add exch
translate
rotate
scale
0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc
restorematrix
PStroke
grestore
} bind def
/AAclip {
savematrix
newpath
normalize translate 0.0 0.0 moveto
rotate
dnormalize scale
0.0 0.0 1.0 5 3 roll arc
closepath
strokepath clip newpath
restorematrix
} bind def
/AAstrk {
GGstrk
} bind def
/x FMLOCAL
/y FMLOCAL
/w FMLOCAL
/h FMLOCAL
/xx FMLOCAL
/yy FMLOCAL
/ww FMLOCAL
/hh FMLOCAL
/FMsaveobject FMLOCAL
/FMoptop FMLOCAL
/FMdicttop FMLOCAL
/BEGINPRINTCODE {
/FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def
/FMoptop count 7 sub def
/FMsaveobject save def
userdict begin
/showpage {} def
FMNORMALIZEGRAPHICS
3 index neg 3 index neg translate
} bind def
/ENDPRINTCODE {
count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for
countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for
FMsaveobject restore
} bind def
/gn {
0
{ 46 mul
cf read pop
32 sub
dup 46 lt {exit} if
46 sub add
} loop
add
} bind def
/str FMLOCAL
/cfs {
/str sl string def
0 1 sl 1 sub {str exch val put} for
str def
} bind def
/ic [
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0223
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0223
0
{0 hx} {1 hx} {2 hx} {3 hx} {4 hx} {5 hx} {6 hx} {7 hx} {8 hx} {9 hx}
{10 hx} {11 hx} {12 hx} {13 hx} {14 hx} {15 hx} {16 hx} {17 hx} {18 hx}
{19 hx} {gn hx} {0} {1} {2} {3} {4} {5} {6} {7} {8} {9} {10} {11} {12}
{13} {14} {15} {16} {17} {18} {19} {gn} {0 wh} {1 wh} {2 wh} {3 wh}
{4 wh} {5 wh} {6 wh} {7 wh} {8 wh} {9 wh} {10 wh} {11 wh} {12 wh}
{13 wh} {14 wh} {gn wh} {0 bl} {1 bl} {2 bl} {3 bl} {4 bl} {5 bl} {6 bl}
{7 bl} {8 bl} {9 bl} {10 bl} {11 bl} {12 bl} {13 bl} {14 bl} {gn bl}
{0 fl} {1 fl} {2 fl} {3 fl} {4 fl} {5 fl} {6 fl} {7 fl} {8 fl} {9 fl}
{10 fl} {11 fl} {12 fl} {13 fl} {14 fl} {gn fl}
] def
/sl FMLOCAL
/val FMLOCAL
/ws FMLOCAL
/im FMLOCAL
/bs FMLOCAL
/cs FMLOCAL
/len FMLOCAL
/pos FMLOCAL
/ms {
/sl exch def
/val 255 def
/ws cfs
/im cfs
/val 0 def
/bs cfs
/cs cfs
} bind def
400 ms
/ip {
is
0
cf cs readline pop
{ ic exch get exec
add
} forall
pop
} bind def
/rip {
bis ris copy pop
is
0
cf cs readline pop
{ ic exch get exec
add
} forall
pop pop
ris gis copy pop
dup is exch
cf cs readline pop
{ ic exch get exec
add
} forall
pop pop
gis bis copy pop
dup add is exch
cf cs readline pop
{ ic exch get exec
add
} forall
pop
} bind def
/wh {
/len exch def
/pos exch def
ws 0 len getinterval im pos len getinterval copy pop
pos len
} bind def
/bl {
/len exch def
/pos exch def
bs 0 len getinterval im pos len getinterval copy pop
pos len
} bind def
/s1 1 string def
/fl {
/len exch def
/pos exch def
/val cf s1 readhexstring pop 0 get def
pos 1 pos len add 1 sub {im exch val put} for
pos len
} bind def
/hx {
3 copy getinterval
cf exch readhexstring pop pop
} bind def
/h FMLOCAL
/w FMLOCAL
/d FMLOCAL
/lb FMLOCAL
/bitmapsave FMLOCAL
/is FMLOCAL
/cf FMLOCAL
/wbytes {
dup dup
24 eq { pop pop 3 mul }
{ 8 eq {pop} {1 eq {7 add 8 idiv} {3 add 4 idiv} ifelse} ifelse } ifelse
} bind def
/BEGINBITMAPBWc {
1 {} COMMONBITMAPc
} bind def
/BEGINBITMAPGRAYc {
8 {} COMMONBITMAPc
} bind def
/BEGINBITMAP2BITc {
2 {} COMMONBITMAPc
} bind def
/COMMONBITMAPc {
/r exch def
/d exch def
gsave
3 index 2 div add exch
4 index 2 div add exch
translate
rotate
1 index 2 div neg
1 index 2 div neg
translate
scale
/h exch def /w exch def
/lb w d wbytes def
sl lb lt {lb ms} if
/bitmapsave save def
r
/is im 0 lb getinterval def
ws 0 lb getinterval is copy pop
/cf currentfile def
w h d [w 0 0 h neg 0 h]
{ip} image
bitmapsave restore
grestore
} bind def
/BEGINBITMAPBW {
1 {} COMMONBITMAP
} bind def
/BEGINBITMAPGRAY {
8 {} COMMONBITMAP
} bind def
/BEGINBITMAP2BIT {
2 {} COMMONBITMAP
} bind def
/COMMONBITMAP {
/r exch def
/d exch def
gsave
3 index 2 div add exch
4 index 2 div add exch
translate
rotate
1 index 2 div neg
1 index 2 div neg
translate
scale
/h exch def /w exch def
/bitmapsave save def
r
/is w d wbytes string def
/cf currentfile def
w h d [w 0 0 h neg 0 h]
{cf is readhexstring pop} image
bitmapsave restore
grestore
} bind def
/ngrayt 256 array def
/nredt 256 array def
/nbluet 256 array def
/ngreent 256 array def
/gryt FMLOCAL
/blut FMLOCAL
/grnt FMLOCAL
/redt FMLOCAL
/indx FMLOCAL
/cynu FMLOCAL
/magu FMLOCAL
/yelu FMLOCAL
/k FMLOCAL
/u FMLOCAL
FMLevel1 {
/colorsetup {
currentcolortransfer
/gryt exch def
/blut exch def
/grnt exch def
/redt exch def
0 1 255 {
/indx exch def
/cynu 1 red indx get 255 div sub def
/magu 1 green indx get 255 div sub def
/yelu 1 blue indx get 255 div sub def
/k cynu magu min yelu min def
/u k currentundercolorremoval exec def
% /u 0 def
nredt indx 1 0 cynu u sub max sub redt exec put
ngreent indx 1 0 magu u sub max sub grnt exec put
nbluet indx 1 0 yelu u sub max sub blut exec put
ngrayt indx 1 k currentblackgeneration exec sub gryt exec put
} for
{255 mul cvi nredt exch get}
{255 mul cvi ngreent exch get}
{255 mul cvi nbluet exch get}
{255 mul cvi ngrayt exch get}
setcolortransfer
{pop 0} setundercolorremoval
{} setblackgeneration
} bind def
}
{
/colorSetup2 {
[ /Indexed /DeviceRGB 255
{dup red exch get 255 div
exch dup green exch get 255 div
exch blue exch get 255 div}
] setcolorspace
} bind def
} ifelse
/tran FMLOCAL
/fakecolorsetup {
/tran 256 string def
0 1 255 {/indx exch def
tran indx
red indx get 77 mul
green indx get 151 mul
blue indx get 28 mul
add add 256 idiv put} for
currenttransfer
{255 mul cvi tran exch get 255.0 div}
exch concatprocs settransfer
} bind def
/BITMAPCOLOR {
/d 8 def
gsave
3 index 2 div add exch
4 index 2 div add exch
translate
rotate
1 index 2 div neg
1 index 2 div neg
translate
scale
/h exch def /w exch def
/bitmapsave save def
FMLevel1 {
colorsetup
/is w d wbytes string def
/cf currentfile def
w h d [w 0 0 h neg 0 h]
{cf is readhexstring pop} {is} {is} true 3 colorimage
} {
colorSetup2
/is w d wbytes string def
/cf currentfile def
7 dict dup begin
/ImageType 1 def
/Width w def
/Height h def
/ImageMatrix [w 0 0 h neg 0 h] def
/DataSource {cf is readhexstring pop} bind def
/BitsPerComponent d def
/Decode [0 255] def
end image
} ifelse
bitmapsave restore
grestore
} bind def
/BITMAPCOLORc {
/d 8 def
gsave
3 index 2 div add exch
4 index 2 div add exch
translate
rotate
1 index 2 div neg
1 index 2 div neg
translate
scale
/h exch def /w exch def
/lb w d wbytes def
sl lb lt {lb ms} if
/bitmapsave save def
FMLevel1 {
colorsetup
/is im 0 lb getinterval def
ws 0 lb getinterval is copy pop
/cf currentfile def
w h d [w 0 0 h neg 0 h]
{ip} {is} {is} true 3 colorimage
} {
colorSetup2
/is im 0 lb getinterval def
ws 0 lb getinterval is copy pop
/cf currentfile def
7 dict dup begin
/ImageType 1 def
/Width w def
/Height h def
/ImageMatrix [w 0 0 h neg 0 h] def
/DataSource {ip} bind def
/BitsPerComponent d def
/Decode [0 255] def
end image
} ifelse
bitmapsave restore
grestore
} bind def
/BITMAPTRUECOLORc {
/d 24 def
gsave
3 index 2 div add exch
4 index 2 div add exch
translate
rotate
1 index 2 div neg
1 index 2 div neg
translate
scale
/h exch def /w exch def
/lb w d wbytes def
sl lb lt {lb ms} if
/bitmapsave save def
/is im 0 lb getinterval def
/ris im 0 w getinterval def
/gis im w w getinterval def
/bis im w 2 mul w getinterval def
ws 0 lb getinterval is copy pop
/cf currentfile def
w h 8 [w 0 0 h neg 0 h]
{w rip pop ris} {gis} {bis} true 3 colorimage
bitmapsave restore
grestore
} bind def
/BITMAPTRUECOLOR {
gsave
3 index 2 div add exch
4 index 2 div add exch
translate
rotate
1 index 2 div neg
1 index 2 div neg
translate
scale
/h exch def /w exch def
/bitmapsave save def
/is w string def
/gis w string def
/bis w string def
/cf currentfile def
w h 8 [w 0 0 h neg 0 h]
{ cf is readhexstring pop }
{ cf gis readhexstring pop }
{ cf bis readhexstring pop }
true 3 colorimage
bitmapsave restore
grestore
} bind def
/BITMAPTRUEGRAYc {
/d 24 def
gsave
3 index 2 div add exch
4 index 2 div add exch
translate
rotate
1 index 2 div neg
1 index 2 div neg
translate
scale
/h exch def /w exch def
/lb w d wbytes def
sl lb lt {lb ms} if
/bitmapsave save def
/is im 0 lb getinterval def
/ris im 0 w getinterval def
/gis im w w getinterval def
/bis im w 2 mul w getinterval def
ws 0 lb getinterval is copy pop
/cf currentfile def
w h 8 [w 0 0 h neg 0 h]
{w rip pop ris gis bis w gray} image
bitmapsave restore
grestore
} bind def
/ww FMLOCAL
/r FMLOCAL
/g FMLOCAL
/b FMLOCAL
/i FMLOCAL
/gray {
/ww exch def
/b exch def
/g exch def
/r exch def
0 1 ww 1 sub { /i exch def r i get .299 mul g i get .587 mul
b i get .114 mul add add r i 3 -1 roll floor cvi put } for
r
} bind def
/BITMAPTRUEGRAY {
gsave
3 index 2 div add exch
4 index 2 div add exch
translate
rotate
1 index 2 div neg
1 index 2 div neg
translate
scale
/h exch def /w exch def
/bitmapsave save def
/is w string def
/gis w string def
/bis w string def
/cf currentfile def
w h 8 [w 0 0 h neg 0 h]
{ cf is readhexstring pop
cf gis readhexstring pop
cf bis readhexstring pop w gray} image
bitmapsave restore
grestore
} bind def
/BITMAPGRAY {
8 {fakecolorsetup} COMMONBITMAP
} bind def
/BITMAPGRAYc {
8 {fakecolorsetup} COMMONBITMAPc
} bind def
/ENDBITMAP {
} bind def
end
/ALDsave FMLOCAL
/ALDmatrix matrix def ALDmatrix currentmatrix pop
/StartALD {
/ALDsave save def
savematrix
ALDmatrix setmatrix
} bind def
/InALD {
restorematrix
} bind def
/DoneALD {
ALDsave restore
} bind def
/I { setdash } bind def
/J { [] 0 setdash } bind def
%%EndProlog
%%BeginSetup
(4.0) FMVERSION
1 1 0 0 612 792 0 1 18 FMDOCUMENT
0 0 /Helvetica FMFONTDEFINE
1 0 /LucidaBright-DemiItalic FMFONTDEFINE
2 0 /LucidaBright-Italic FMFONTDEFINE
3 0 /Times-Roman FMFONTDEFINE
4 0 /LucidaBright-Demi FMFONTDEFINE
5 0 /LucidaBright FMFONTDEFINE
6 0 /Times-Italic FMFONTDEFINE
7 0 /Helvetica-Bold FMFONTDEFINE
32 FMFILLS
0 0 FMFILL
1 0.1 FMFILL
2 0.3 FMFILL
3 0.5 FMFILL
4 0.7 FMFILL
5 0.9 FMFILL
6 0.97 FMFILL
7 1 FMFILL
8 <0f1e3c78f0e1c387> FMFILL
9 <0f87c3e1f0783c1e> FMFILL
10 FMFILL
11 FMFILL
12 <8142241818244281> FMFILL
13 <03060c183060c081> FMFILL
14 <8040201008040201> FMFILL
16 1 FMFILL
17 0.9 FMFILL
18 0.7 FMFILL
19 0.5 FMFILL
20 0.3 FMFILL
21 0.1 FMFILL
22 0.03 FMFILL
23 0 FMFILL
24 FMFILL
25 FMFILL
26 <3333333333333333> FMFILL
27 <0000ffff0000ffff> FMFILL
28 <7ebddbe7e7dbbd7e> FMFILL
29 FMFILL
30 <7fbfdfeff7fbfdfe> FMFILL
%%EndSetup
%%Page: "1" 1
%%BeginPaperSize: Letter
%%EndPaperSize
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
J
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(_____________________________________________________________________________) 72 43.73 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 20 Q
(Technology and Courage) 178.79 586.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 18 Q
(Ivan Sutherland) 236.26 516 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2 14 Q
(Perspectives 96-1) 248.25 276.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(In an Essay Series Published by SunLabs) 170.5 256.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(April 1996) 269.82 222.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "1" 1
%%Page: "2" 2
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(_____________________________________________________________________________) 72 43.73 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 8 Q
0.17 (\251 Copyright 1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Perspectives, a new and parallel series to the Sun Microsystems Laboratories T) 72 294.67 P
0.17 (echnical Report Series,) 465.68 294.67 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(is published by Sun Microsystems Laboratories, a division of Sun Microsystems, Inc. Printed in U.S.A.) 72 284.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.13 (Unlimited copying without fee is permitted provided that the copies are not made nor distributed for direct commercial advantage, and credit to the) 72 264.67 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.06 (source is given. Otherwise, no part of this work covered by copyright hereon may be reproduced in any form or by any means graphic, electronic,) 72 254.67 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.11 (or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or storage in an information retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the) 72 244.67 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(copyright owner) 72 234.67 T
(.) 124.22 234.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(TRADEMARKS) 72 214.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.18 (Sun, Sun Microsystems, and the Sun logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark in the) 72 204.67 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.79 (United States and other countries, exclusively licensed through X/Open Company) 72 194.67 P
0.79 (, Ltd. All SP) 340.82 194.67 P
0.79 (ARC trademarks, including the SCD Compliant) 382.69 194.67 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1.16 (Logo, are trademarks or registered trademarks of SP) 72 184.67 P
1.16 (ARC International, Inc. SP) 246.9 184.67 P
1.16 (ARCstation, SP) 336.09 184.67 P
1.16 (ARCserver) 387.2 184.67 P
1.16 (, SP) 422.87 184.67 P
1.16 (ARCengine, SP) 436.19 184.67 P
1.16 (ARCworks, and) 487.29 184.67 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.29 (SP) 72 174.67 P
0.29 (ARCompiler are licensed exclusively to Sun Microsystems, Inc. All other product names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respec-) 80.16 174.67 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(tive owners.) 72 164.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(For information regarding the SunLabs Perspectives Series, contact Jeanie T) 72 144.67 T
(reichel, Editor) 316.57 144.67 T
(-in-Chief .) 362.18 144.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(For distribution issues, contact Amy T) 72 134.67 T
(ashbook Hall, Assistant Editor .) 312.1 134.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "2" 2
%%Page: "3" 3
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(3) 303 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 20 Q
(Editor\325s Notes) 236.72 670.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 14 Q
0.4 (About the series) 72 626.67 P
4 F
0.4 (\321) 186.78 626.67 P
3 12 Q
0.26 (The Perspectives series is a collection of essays written by individuals) 200.78 626.67 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2.31 (from Sun Microsystems Laboratories. These essays express ideas and opinions held by the) 72 611 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.1 (authors on subjects of general rather than technical interest. Sun Microsystems Laboratories pub-) 72 596 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.17 (lishes these essays as a courtesy to the authors to share their views with interested friends and col-) 72 581 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.57 (leagues. The opinions and views expressed herein are solely those of the authors, and do not in) 72 566 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(any way represent those of Sun Microsystems Laboratories, nor Sun Microsystems, Inc.) 72 551 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
5 F
(~~~~~~~~) 276.82 519 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 14 Q
-0.12 (About the author) 72 486.67 P
4 F
-0.12 (\321) 193.38 486.67 P
3 12 Q
-0.08 (Dr) 207.38 486.67 P
-0.08 (. Ivan E. Sutherland recently won the prestigious Price W) 219.38 486.67 P
-0.08 (aterhouse) 494.02 486.67 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
2.07 (Information T) 72 471 P
2.07 (echnology Leadership A) 140.88 471 P
2.07 (ward for Lifetime Achievement, as well as an honored) 261.88 471 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(place in the Smithsonian\325) 72 456 T
(s Permanent Collection of Information T) 193.67 456 T
(echnology \050IT\051 Innovation.) 388.48 456 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.31 (He is widely known for his pioneering contributions in the \336eld of computer graphics. His 1963) 72 427 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.41 (MIT Ph.D. thesis, Sketchpad, \336rst demonstrated the potential of computer graphics. In his work) 72 412 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.1 (on a head-mounted three-dimensional display at Harvard in the mid) 72 397 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.1 (\325) 398.98 397 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.1 (60s, Ivan anticipated today\325) 402.98 397 P
-0.1 (s) 535.33 397 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.55 (virtual reality by 25 years. He is co-founder of Evans and Sutherland, which produces the most) 72 382 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.32 (advanced computer image generators now in use. As head of the Computer Science Department) 72 367 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.9 (at Caltech, he helped make integrated circuit design an acceptable \336eld of academic study) 72 352 P
0.9 (. Dr) 514.19 352 P
0.9 (.) 537 352 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.01 (Sutherland is a member of both the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy) 72 337 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(of Sciences. He received the ACM T) 72 322 T
(uring A) 251.53 322 T
(ward in 1988 and holds several honorary degrees.) 287.42 322 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(In this paper) 72 292 T
(, his spirit and joy are revealed:) 131.51 292 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.09 (I, for one, am and will always remain a practicing technologist.) 108 273 P
0.09 (When denied my) 421.83 273 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.35 (minimum daily adult dose of technology) 108 256 P
0.35 (, I get grouchy) 303.99 256 P
0.35 (. I believe that technology) 374.25 256 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1.42 (is fun, especially when computers are involved, a sort of grand game or puzzle) 108 241 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 (with ever so neat parts to \336t together) 108 226 P
0 (. I have turned down several lucrative admin-) 283.02 226 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.11 (istrative jobs because they would deny me that fun. If the technology you do isn\325) 108 211 P
0.11 (t) 500.66 211 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.05 (fun for you, you may wish to seek other employment. W) 108 196 P
0.05 (ithout the fun, none of us) 383.07 196 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(would go on.) 108 181 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Dr) 72 151 T
(. Sutherland is presently V) 84 151 T
(ice President and Fellow of Sun Microsystems, Inc.) 210.94 151 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(\321Ed.) 291.83 122 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "3" 3
%%Page: "4" 4
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(4) 303 39.95 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 20 Q
(Notes from the Author) 191.99 670.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0.19 (This paper is essentially the text of a lecture I gave at Carnegie Mellon University) 108 609 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.21 (in 1982. It was the f) 108 594 B
0.3 0.21 (irst, and nearly the only) 212.75 594 B
0.3 0.21 (, non-technical lecture I have ever) 332.08 594 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.21 (given. At the time, I was deeply concerned that the ideas I expressed would be of) 108 579 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(little interest or value.) 108 564 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.2 (This paper was eventually published in the Carnegie Mellon University Computer) 108 535 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 (Science 25th Anniversary Commemorative [15]. Continuing demand for informal) 108 520 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (copies suggests that people, especially young people, may garner value from it.) 108 505 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Perhaps experience has something to of) 108 490 T
(fer youth.) 298.08 490 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (As I read this paper again for the f) 108 461 B
0.3 0.14 (irst time in many years, it brought me face to) 279.23 461 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (face with my own latest failures of courage. Sadly) 108 446 B
0.3 0.07 (, I have no more courage now) 357.38 446 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.13 (than I had then, no better insight into failures of courage, and no new ways to bol-) 108 431 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(ster courage. I was able to add only citations to subsequently published work.) 108 416 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.13 (Sun Microsystems Laboratories reprints this paper with permission of the ACM) 108 387 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.07 (press as a courtesy to those who may wish a copy) 108 372 P
0.07 (. The ideas are my own and rep-) 345.85 372 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (resent no of) 108 357 B
0.3 0.05 (f) 165.65 357 B
0.3 0.05 (icial position of Sun Microsystems, Inc. or Carnegie Mellon Univer-) 169.03 357 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(sity) 108 342 T
(. The text is also available on the W) 124.56 342 T
(orld W) 298.91 342 T
(ide W) 332.09 342 T
(eb.) 360.12 342 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (Y) 108 313 B
0.3 0.12 (ou may reproduce this document for any not-for) 115.59 313 B
0.3 0.12 (-prof) 354.15 313 B
0.3 0.12 (it purpose. Reproduction) 378.11 313 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (for prof) 108 298 B
0.3 0.07 (it or where a royalty is paid to anyone requires prior permission from the) 145.2 298 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(author) 108 283 T
(.) 138 283 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Ivan Sutherland) 108 217 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Mountain V) 108 195 T
(iew) 165.61 195 T
(, CA) 182.16 195 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(December 1995) 108 180 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "4" 4
%%Page: "5" 5
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(5) 303 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 14 Q
(1) 108 395.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Introduction) 122.4 395.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0.3 0.03 (Sutherland is a Scottish name. My ancestors came from the northernmost county) 108 365 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (in Scotland, called Sutherlandshire, a land where cows grow long hair against the) 108 350 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.33 (cold, trees mostly refuse to grow at all, and the farmers cut peat to heat their) 108 335 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.15 (homes. I enjoyed the sunrise at 3 AM there one summer morning, it having set) 108 320 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.25 (about 1) 108 305 B
0.3 0.25 (1 PM the previous evening. Because the bonus of summer sunshine is) 145.3 305 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (merely borrowed from winter) 108 290 B
0.3 0.05 (, winter must be bleak indeed. A British friend who) 251.98 290 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.21 (was with me in Sutherlandshire remarked that Sutherlands there are \322two for a) 108 275 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.04 (penny\323; I had thought of them \322a dime a dozen,\323 but considering the pound to dol-) 108 260 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(lar exchange rate, it\325) 108 245 T
(s about the same value.) 205.97 245 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.28 (I often wear a tie bearing my family colors, the Sutherland tartan. Depending upon) 108 216 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (the listener) 108 201 B
0.3 0.14 (, I claim to wear it either a\051 because I own only one tie, which is not) 162.54 201 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (true, or b\051 as a default to avoid having to choose a tie, which is true but unimpor-) 108 186 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (tant, or c\051 in honor of my late father who also generally wore such a tie, which is) 108 171 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.13 (also true and is my real reason: like my father before me, I am proud of my lin-) 108 156 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(eage, and draw courage from identifying with my ancestors.) 108 141 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
108 486 504 648 R
7 X
V
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
4 18 Q
0 X
(Technology and Courage) 192.26 579 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
6 14 Q
(Ivan Sutherland) 261.09 543.67 T
3 10 Q
(Sun Microsystems Laboratories) 242.4 516.33 T
(2550 Garcia Avenue) 264.62 505.33 T
(Mountain View, California 94043) 236.7 494.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "5" 5
%%Page: "6" 6
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(6) 303 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.24 (Nearly all of the talks I have ever given were technical. Because I am a professor) 108 676 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.06 (at heart, you can wind me up and I will easily go on for exactly 50 minutes on any) 108 661 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.06 (of my several technical interests. I go on easily because I know my subjects well, I) 108 646 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.15 (know what is interesting about them, I know that I can talk clearly about them, and) 108 631 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(I have had favorable responses from previous audiences.) 108 616 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.22 (T) 108 587 P
-0.22 (oday) 114.49 587 P
-0.22 (, however) 137.04 587 P
-0.22 (, I want to do something very much harder for me. I want to depart) 183.66 587 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (from my familiar technical f) 108 572 B
0.3 0.05 (ields to address a dif) 245.99 572 B
0.3 0.05 (ferent subject:) 346.79 572 B
6 F
0.3 0.05 (courage) 419.56 572 B
3 F
0.3 0.05 (. I direct) 459.25 572 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (my remarks to young people who may soon discover for the f) 108 557 B
0.3 0.11 (irst time that to do) 412.69 557 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (technology requires courage, and to my older colleagues who, like me, have lan-) 108 542 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.2 (guishing technical projects and reports that seem less important than today's ur) 108 527 P
-0.2 (gent) 483.34 527 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.07 (tasks. I am going to talk about the courage required to do creative technical work,) 108 512 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.17 (and because I have mainly my own experience to draw on, this will be an intensely) 108 497 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.04 (personal talk, revealing of my own failures of courage. I ask you to apply to your-) 108 482 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(selves any lessons you may learn.) 108 467 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(1.1) 108 428 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(What is Courage?) 134.44 428 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.03 (Many activities require courage, a human trait we f) 108 401 B
0.3 0.03 (ind admirable. W) 356.73 401 B
0.3 0.03 (e admire the) 443.78 401 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (courage required to explore a wilderness and so great explorers become famous:) 108 386 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (Lewis and Clark, Admiral Byrd, Amelia Earhart, and John Glenn, for example.) 108 371 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (W) 108 356 B
0.3 0.16 (e also admire political courage, as exhibited by Abraham Lincoln or W) 118.53 356 B
0.3 0.16 (inston) 473.85 356 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.25 (Churchill, or more recently by Mikhail Gorbachev) 108 341 P
0.25 (. T) 351.01 341 P
0.25 (aking \336nancial risks in busi-) 367 341 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.21 (ness also requires courage, as exhibited by Lee Iacocca, although less so when) 108 326 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (someone else's money is at risk. Changing to a new job or a new school requires) 108 311 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(personal courage, especially so when making a home in a new city) 108 296 T
(.) 427.15 296 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (What is courage? Courage is what it takes to overcome fear) 108 267 B
0.3 0.06 (. Fear is an emotion) 403.26 267 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (appropriate to perceived risk. Thus, to exhibit courage one must both perceive a) 108 252 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.02 (risk and proceed in spite of it. Suppose a child has fallen through the ice on a lake) 108 237 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (and could be saved if reached. A person who walks out on the ice believing it to) 108 222 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.14 (be very thick requires no courage because he perceives no risk even though others) 108 207 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (may think him courageous. A person who correctly perceives that the ice is thin) 108 192 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (and stays of) 108 177 B
0.3 0.09 (f it likewise exhibits no courage; rather we call his action prudent or) 166.79 177 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.11 (cowardly) 108 162 P
-0.11 (, depending on whether or not the ice is, in fact, too thin for safety) 151.87 162 P
-0.11 (. Cour-) 467.22 162 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.19 (age is required only of a person who proceeds to rescue the child in full knowledge) 108 147 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(that the ice is thin.) 108 132 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "6" 6
%%Page: "7" 7
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(7) 303 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(1.2) 108 676 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Courage in Technology) 134.44 676 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.16 (Exploring the horizons of technology requires courage because research carries) 108 649 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.05 (risks, even if we cannot always articulate them in advance. Generally they are not) 108 634 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (physical risks, although physical risks exist in some f) 108 619 B
0.3 0.04 (ields of science. Often they) 367.48 619 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.06 (are not immediate personal \336nancial risks, because these may be borne by the uni-) 108 604 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.25 (versity) 108 589 P
-0.25 (, an industrial employer) 139.88 589 P
-0.25 (, or the government sponsor of the work. Usually the) 252.64 589 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (risks are more subtle but no less strong: they are social and emotional risks, risks) 108 574 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (to reputation and to pride; they are risks that are felt but dif) 108 559 B
0.3 0.12 (f) 402.94 559 B
0.3 0.12 (icult to identify and) 406.39 559 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(describe.) 108 544 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (In addition to the risk to reputation and to pride, the very nature of research poses) 108 515 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.06 (its own special risk. In research, we daily face the uncertainty of whether our cho-) 108 500 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (sen approach will succeed or fail. W) 108 485 B
0.3 0.03 (e steep ourselves in elusive, mysterious, and) 288.22 485 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.26 (unnamed phenomena, and we struggle to unravel very complex puzzles, often) 108 470 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (making no visible progress for weeks or months, sometimes for years. W) 108 455 B
0.3 0.05 (e strive) 468.34 455 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.24 (for simplicity and clarity in a cloudy and often baf) 108 440 P
0.24 (\337ing world. The special risk of) 351.58 440 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (research starts with the high probability that any particular attempt will fail and) 108 425 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (follows from the resulting experience of repeated failure. Research carries a spe-) 108 410 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(cial risk of discouragement.) 108 395 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(1.3) 108 356 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Failures of Courage) 134.44 356 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.25 (When you have inadequate courage for a task, you can work up your courage,) 108 329 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.03 (reduce the real risk, reduce your perception of the risk, or leave the task undone. I) 108 314 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.2 (use all four methods. All too often, however) 108 299 P
0.2 (, I leave tasks undone because I don't) 324.46 299 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0 (recognize that my courage is inadequate to the risks I feel but don't verbalize. Our) 108 284 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (universities provide mechanisms, both formal and informal, for reducing the risks) 108 269 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.2 (of research and for building up the courage of researchers. Our free enterprise sys-) 108 254 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (tem also provides mechanisms to encourage entrepreneurs to undertake new chal-) 108 239 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (lenges. Each of us also has ways to conserve and bolster his own courage. The) 108 224 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (body of this talk is my list of some of these mechanisms. I suggest that you can) 108 209 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.28 (draw on them as well as invent some of your own, and that by doing so you may be) 108 194 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(better able to face the dif) 108 179 T
(\336cult challenges technology of) 227.41 179 T
(fers.) 374.84 179 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "7" 7
%%Page: "8" 8
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(8) 303 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 14 Q
(2) 108 674.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(External Encouragement) 122.4 674.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0.3 0.11 (Because individuals are often unable to get things done without encouragement,) 108 644 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (society has devised many forms of encouragement. There are rewards of money) 108 629 B
0.3 0.04 (,) 501 629 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.3 (fame, acclaim, recognition, status, or love. Prizes, statues, certi\336cates, medals, and) 108 614 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (honorary titles are some of the adult equivalents of the gold stars we got as chil-) 108 599 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.15 (dren for good work. Lar) 108 584 P
-0.15 (ge of) 225.65 584 P
-0.15 (\336ces, with carpets, maybe with windows, and with or) 249.6 584 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (without a f) 108 569 B
0.3 0.1 (lag or fancy plants in them are also symbols of status. There are also) 161.06 569 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (punishments for inaction. Often we formalize such rewards and punishments in) 108 554 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(the form of written or unwritten contracts.) 108 539 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.44 (Contracts often contain deadlines. Deadlines help inspire us to extra ef) 108 510 B
0.3 0.44 (fort) 485.34 510 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.15 (because the task must be done on time. In some research, deadlines are absolute: a) 108 495 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (space mission to study Halley's Comet must be launched on time, but softer) 108 480 B
0.3 0.03 (, self-) 476.22 480 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (imposed deadlines are also useful for raising the ur) 108 465 B
0.3 0.14 (gency of tasks. An architect) 361.99 465 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.02 (friend of mine taught me the word \322charette,\323 meaning the feverish activity imme-) 108 450 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.16 (diately preceding a deadline. The term comes from the French name for the horse-) 108 435 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.2 (drawn carts in Paris that carried architectural students with their architectural mod-) 108 420 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (els from their workshops to their examinations, still feverishly f) 108 405 B
0.3 0.03 (inishing the mod-) 418.23 405 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (els \322en charette.\323 In the vernacular English we can speak of \322having a charette,\323) 108 390 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (and, of course, there is a verb form: \322charetting it up.\323 W) 108 375 B
0.3 0.09 (ithout a deadline there) 394.13 375 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.18 (can be no charette. A designer friend of mine is completely unable to function) 108 360 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (without a deadline to work against. Several times I have asked him to do simple) 108 345 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.03 (tasks for me, designing a letterhead, for example, \322when he had time.\323 Until I \336g-) 108 330 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.22 (ured out that he works only against a deadline, I got no result at all. Now I ask him) 108 315 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (for something by a particular date and he usually delivers on time. Evidently) 108 300 B
0.3 0.06 (, he) 486.2 300 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(can work only \322en charette.\323) 108 285 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (The fellowship of people in groups of) 108 256 B
0.3 0.04 (fers encouragement. Groups of people will) 292.33 256 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.31 (even do things that single individuals wouldn't do; lynchings and riots are an) 108 241 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.29 (extreme form of this. Group activities seem easier) 108 226 P
0.29 (. Boards and committees share) 352.59 226 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (not only knowledge, but also responsibility) 108 211 B
0.3 0.14 (, and thus increase their participants') 322.24 211 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.22 (willingness to undertake risk. Moreover) 108 196 B
0.3 0.22 (, the fellowship of such groups makes) 312.55 196 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (working more fun. Is this because man is a social animal, or is this why we call) 108 181 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(man a social animal?) 108 166 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (I always thought that working with a partner or with a few colleagues was better) 108 137 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.03 (than working alone, in part because I can rarely think about dif) 108 122 P
-0.03 (\336cult subjects with-) 409.39 122 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "8" 8
%%Page: "9" 9
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(9) 303 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.07 (out verbalizing them to someone else. I like to collaborate with someone to whom) 108 676 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (I can express my ideas, even poorly formed ones, and from whom I can draw a) 108 661 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (fresh look at them. The names of my companies bear witness to my need to col-) 108 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (laborate: the Evans and Sutherland Computer Company and Sutherland, Sproull,) 108 631 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(and Associates, Inc. I owe much to my partners in these enterprises.) 108 616 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(2.1) 108 577 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Encouragement in Academia) 134.44 577 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.12 (One of the beauties of a university such as Carnegie Mellon University is that it) 108 550 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.12 (abounds with mechanisms to encourage people to do research. Some of these, like) 108 535 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.08 (formal classes, reduce the risk of learning new things. Some of them, like observ-) 108 520 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (ing other people at work on other research tasks, can bolster a graduate student's) 108 505 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.17 (courage to do likewise. Others, like the traditional academic tolerance of noncon-) 108 490 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(formity) 108 475 T
(, reduce the social risk of entertaining new ideas.) 143.22 475 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (The university provides mentors. My former student, Dan Cohen, called me for) 108 446 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (advice nearly 15 years after getting his Ph.D., asserting that he wanted counsel) 108 431 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.14 (from his \322faculty advisor) 108 416 P
-0.14 (.\323 I demurred, claiming that I had stopped being his advi-) 227.24 416 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.25 (sor more than a dozen years ago. Not so, he said, \322it's a tenured position.\323 Because) 108 401 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.09 (attachments between students and faculty become strong, contact with the mentors) 108 386 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (provided by the university is valuable indeed, almost as valuable as contact with) 108 371 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.25 (students. I have learned far more from my students and gained more pleasure from) 108 356 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(them than I have ever of) 108 341 T
(fered in return.) 224.75 341 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(2.2) 108 302 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Formal Mechanisms) 134.44 302 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
-0.19 (Among university classes, I \336nd the study seminar most interesting for several rea-) 108 275 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (sons. Such a seminar gathers together a group with similar interests who read up) 108 260 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (on a subject and pool their knowledge at regular meetings. By providing a series) 108 245 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.17 (of regular meetings and homework assignments, the study seminar provides dead-) 108 230 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.3 (lines for its participants. W) 108 215 B
0.3 0.3 (orking together with colleagues reduces the labor) 250.98 215 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (required from each participant and makes the learning experience more pleasur-) 108 200 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (able. Finally) 108 185 B
0.3 0.11 (, working in a group reduces the perceived risk inherent in the new) 172.33 185 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(material.) 108 170 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (The immigration course in Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University is) 108 141 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.22 (one of the best examples of a formal way to help new graduate students get started.) 108 126 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "9" 9
%%Page: "10" 10
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(10) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (It forces them to learn about what facilities are available, it gives them the oppor-) 108 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (tunity to meet and get to know the people they may work with, and it introduces) 108 661 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.26 (them to the existing research projects. By providing a broad range of background) 108 646 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.25 (knowledge and forcing the students to do a small warm-up project, it not only) 108 631 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (reduces the risk of learning what equipment is available and how to use it, but it) 108 616 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.1 (also builds con\336dence. I applaud the makers of the immigration course for \336nding) 108 601 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(such an ef) 108 586 T
(fective way to launch would-be researchers.) 156.43 586 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (The university also of) 108 557 B
0.3 0.12 (fers formal mechanisms to encourage graduate students to) 216.33 557 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.13 (keep going when the going gets tough. One of these in Computer Science at Carn-) 108 542 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.25 (egie Mellon University is called Black Friday) 108 527 P
0.25 (. As I understand it, Black Friday is) 328.02 527 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (a knock-down-drag-out meeting of the faculty at which each and every graduate) 108 512 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.25 (student is individually discussed to detect those making inadequate progress. The) 108 497 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.02 (laggards are then given formal notice to move forward or leave. By increasing the) 108 482 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (risk of inaction, the threat of Black Friday forces students to bolster their courage) 108 467 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(and get on with their work.) 108 452 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.29 (My advice for a new graduate student seeking to get started in research is to join an) 108 423 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.26 (ongoing research group. Of course there is an opportunity cost to joining up with a) 108 408 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.1 (particular group: you can't then join others. But it matters far less what a new stu-) 108 393 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.11 (dent does than that he do something. If the \336rst two or three things don't work out,) 108 378 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.03 (you can always switch to another group or another project. The key thing is to get) 108 363 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(involved in something, get some basic knowledge, and get started.) 108 348 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(2.3) 108 309 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Talking and Writing) 134.44 309 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.25 (A thesis proposal can provide a starting mechanism for a thesis project: it can) 108 282 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.23 (serve as a guide to the proposed research. It indicates that some thought has gone) 108 267 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.17 (into what to do, even though the real work may not yet have started. Most impor-) 108 252 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (tant, the thesis proposal can serve as a point of discussion between proposers and) 108 237 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.16 (their advisors, both formal faculty advisors and student colleagues. Accepting the) 108 222 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.13 (thesis proposal is in and of itself a way for the faculty to encourage a student to get) 108 207 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (on with the work. All too often, thesis proposals are an afterthought to research) 108 192 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.19 (already done, becoming at best an outline of the thesis document. I far prefer them) 108 177 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(earlier as a guide to the research itself.) 108 162 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (Academia provides mechanisms to encourage publication of which the strongest) 108 133 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.3 (one is known as \322publish or perish.\323 A new) 108 118 B
0.3 0.3 (, untenured faculty member must) 334.81 118 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "10" 10
%%Page: "11" 11
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(1) 300.22 37 T
(1) 305.78 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.23 (obtain tenure or leave the university after a \336xed period of time, but to obtain ten-) 108 676 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (ure one must publish. A journal editor I know once remarked that she sits on the) 108 661 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(tenure committee of every university in the country) 108 646 T
(.) 354.18 646 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.27 (T) 108 617 P
-0.27 (enure itself can be encouraging. A young and talented friend of mine, a computer) 114.49 617 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.23 (scientist by training and a tenured professor of Computer Science at a major insti-) 108 602 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.38 (tution, has recently become interested in combustion. He commented to me) 108 587 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (recently that he feels guilty for pursuing studies so far outside his departmental) 108 572 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (boundary) 108 557 B
0.3 0.02 (. I hope you share my feeling that he should follow his interests exactly) 152.71 557 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (where they lead. That is, after all, precisely what tenure should encourage him to) 108 542 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(do.) 108 527 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.21 (Universities also provide a host of places where talking about research is easy) 108 498 B
0.3 0.21 (.) 501 498 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (Seminars provide a knowledgeable and usually friendly audience for new ideas.) 108 483 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (By providing peer pressure to participate and share results, seminars can encour-) 108 468 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.06 (age students to practice talking about their work. Even in an informal seminar) 108 453 P
-0.06 (, the) 483.39 453 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.24 (f) 108 438 B
0.3 0.24 (irst few presentations take an extra batch of courage, but with practice comes) 111.58 438 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (familiarity and skill, a better assessment of the minimal risk, and increasing com-) 108 423 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.23 (fort. I have often seen student speakers literally shake before and during their) 108 408 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(talks.) 108 393 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.23 (Practice in teaching is a good way to learn how to present ideas to groups. Gradu-) 108 364 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.14 (ate student teachers not only staf) 108 349 P
0.14 (f under) 265.47 349 P
0.14 (graduate classes, but also learn to speak in) 299.71 349 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (public. One hopes that they do not damage the under) 108 334 B
0.3 0.03 (graduate students too badly) 368.49 334 B
0.3 0.03 (.) 501 334 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.38 (Practice in writing is also valuable, starting in high school or under) 108 319 B
0.3 0.38 (graduate) 459.99 319 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.05 (English classes. All too often technical writing has to be a part of graduate educa-) 108 304 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(tion.) 108 289 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(2.4) 108 250 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Informal Interactions) 134.44 250 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.02 (One of the dif) 108 223 B
0.3 0.02 (f) 175.91 223 B
0.3 0.02 (icult lessons of graduate school is the lesson of autonomy from the) 179.26 223 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.21 (faculty) 108 208 P
-0.21 (. At \336rst, a graduate student may feel unable to question his mentors, but by) 140.54 208 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (the end of graduate training, that same student will be able to take his place as a) 108 193 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.37 (researcher in their ranks. Graduate school is the place where the distinction) 108 178 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.3 (between mentor and student begins to blur) 108 163 B
0.3 0.3 (, and faculty and graduate students) 325.64 163 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(become colleagues.) 108 148 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "11" 11
%%Page: "12" 12
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(12) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (Informal interaction between students and faculty helps students join the ranks of) 108 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (full-f) 108 661 B
0.3 0.1 (ledged researchers. I recall playing with blocks at Claude Shannon's house) 132.6 661 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (when he was my thesis supervisor) 108 646 B
0.3 0.09 (. Although at the time I thought of it as recre-) 275.28 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (ation, and he may also have, it provided me with courage because I saw his less) 108 631 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (daunting facets, his human side. He became my friend as well as supervisor) 108 616 B
0.3 0.03 (, and) 480.23 616 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(this made him more approachable and raised my con\336dence.) 108 601 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (Universities encourage informal social interactions. Although some social func-) 108 572 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (tions may seem to be just for play) 108 557 B
0.3 0.19 (, they help us get to know each other) 278.27 557 B
0.3 0.19 (, and by) 463.71 557 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (knowing each other) 108 542 B
0.3 0.16 (, we become better able to share our burdens of discourage-) 205.64 542 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (ment. W) 108 527 B
0.3 0.16 (e provide each other with courage. W) 153.23 527 B
0.3 0.16 (ithin the fellowship provided by) 343.93 527 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.41 (such social functions we can gain insight into the habits of our mentors and) 108 512 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.26 (friends, and can discuss ill-formed ideas that would be too risky to reveal in a more) 108 497 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(formal context.) 108 482 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(2.5) 108 443 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(In Academia, it's Hard to Stop) 134.44 443 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.04 (Some academics go on and on doing the same research year after year) 108 416 B
0.3 0.04 (, often as a) 450.63 416 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.09 (continuation of their thesis work. Academia seems to me de\336cient in mechanisms) 108 401 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.21 (to help people stop old and stale projects. Sometimes their sponsors withdraw) 108 386 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.01 (support and sometimes their peers suggest change. More often, however) 108 371 P
-0.01 (, academ-) 457.36 371 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (ics continue working on old things, turning away only when they f) 108 356 B
0.3 0.07 (ind newer and) 434.57 356 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(more interesting projects.) 108 341 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(2.6) 108 302 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Encouragement in Business) 134.44 302 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.05 (A person with the courage to start a new business is called an entrepreneur) 108 275 P
0.05 (. When) 466.24 275 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (I was a child, my parents of) 108 260 B
0.3 0.09 (fered high praise for he who was \322enterprising.\323 By) 245.21 260 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.12 (starting several companies myself, and through my work in venture capital, I have) 108 245 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (observed many ways that entrepreneurs work up their courage to the point where) 108 230 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (they are ready to start a business. The most important formal mechanism, nomi-) 108 215 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.26 (nally intended to present the prospects of the business to the \336nancial community) 108 200 P
0.26 (,) 501 200 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.06 (is called the business plan. A business plan is very much like a thesis proposal. It) 108 185 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (says what its proponents intend to do, what they plan to spend, what competition) 108 170 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.27 (they expect, and what return they anticipate. Its preparation requires that the entre-) 108 155 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 (preneurs do the basic work that is needed to assess the business risks. Its approval) 108 140 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (encourages the entrepreneurs to begin by providing not only the capital required,) 108 125 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "12" 12
%%Page: "13" 13
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(13) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (but also the moral encouragement of the supporting investors. In ef) 108 676 B
0.3 0.02 (fect, the busi-) 437.53 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(ness plan records the entrepreneur's estimate of the thickness of the ice.) 108 661 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (The f) 108 632 B
0.3 0.14 (inancial backers of an enterprise back it only after examining its prospects) 133.99 632 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.05 (with \322due diligence.\323 Sometimes it seems to me that a plan is so obviously timely) 108 617 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.11 (and the entrepreneur) 108 602 P
0.11 (\325) 207.28 602 P
0.11 (s ability so obviously great that little further diligence is due.) 210.62 602 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.09 (My venture capital friends, however) 108 587 P
0.09 (, often for) 282.19 587 P
0.09 (get what \322due\323 means, and treat due) 329.81 587 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (diligence as if it were a single noun denoting the collection of paper that justif) 108 572 B
0.3 0.05 (ies) 490.56 572 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.01 (investment in the business. They may say) 108 557 P
-0.01 (, \322let us gather some due diligence,\323 and) 309.79 557 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.21 (they have f) 108 542 B
0.3 0.21 (iles of due diligence. It seems to take due diligence about one inch) 163.61 542 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.14 (thick per million dollars invested. Ultimately) 108 527 P
0.14 (, the \336nancial backers of a new busi-) 327.06 527 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (ness must express their faith in the entrepreneurs and have the courage to invest.) 108 512 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (They should exercise due diligence in making their own estimate of the thickness) 108 497 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(of the ice.) 108 482 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.2 (Although business plans are rarely followed in any great detail, they are neverthe-) 108 453 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (less very useful. They build courage in the entrepreneurs by letting them plan a) 108 438 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.12 (real business and see its potential pro\336t. They provide a way for \336nancial backers) 108 423 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (to understand the proposed business, milestones for measurement of progress, a) 108 408 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.24 (common ground for discussing changes in plan, and a common tar) 108 393 B
0.3 0.24 (get for both) 444.75 393 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (entrepreneurs and backers to seek. The plan's real function is to endow everyone) 108 378 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(with the courage to proceed.) 108 363 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (It turns out that a lar) 108 334 B
0.3 0.1 (ge fraction of new businesses fail, just as a lar) 209.3 334 B
0.3 0.1 (ge fraction of) 437.42 334 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (research ideas fail. Fortunately for our society) 108 319 B
0.3 0.16 (, our collective courage keeps us) 340.89 319 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (trying, even trying things that prove imprudent. W) 108 304 B
0.3 0.12 (ere we a more cautious lot, a) 361.09 304 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 (much slower pace of scienti\336c and industrial progress would prevail. If you don't) 108 289 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 (fail regularly you are not trying hard enough things. The trouble, of course, is that) 108 274 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.33 (it is emotionally much harder to restart after a failure because the risks seem) 108 259 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (clearer) 108 244 B
0.3 0.01 (. This may be why the ener) 140.02 244 B
0.3 0.01 (gy and enthusiasm of youth are so important in) 275.36 244 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(research and in new businesses.) 108 229 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(2.7) 108 190 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Business Incentives) 134.44 190 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
-0.2 (Our system of capitalist free enterprise provides equity incentives. It is amazing to) 108 163 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (me how ef) 108 148 B
0.3 0.19 (fectively stock ownership motivates hard work, and more important,) 160.73 148 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.11 (how common ownership of identical stock makes people pull together) 108 133 P
0.11 (. If you and) 445.26 133 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (I both own the same type of stock, I can make a return) 108 118 B
6 F
0.3 0.08 (if and only if you do) 380.44 118 B
3 F
0.3 0.08 (, and) 480.04 118 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "13" 13
%%Page: "14" 14
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(14) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (thus my objective becomes to make you rich. This is the power of the capitalist) 108 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(system that raised our standard of living to the highest in the world.) 108 661 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (In addition to stock ownership, income and bonus incentives to business people) 108 632 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.23 (often help keep their minds focused on their essential tasks. Commissions for) 108 617 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.15 (sales people are very common, probably because selling takes so much courage to) 108 602 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.09 (face the high risk of rejection by the potential customer) 108 587 P
0.09 (. There is almost nothing I) 373.79 587 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.25 (like less than selling, particularly against competition that undoes my sales pitch as) 108 572 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (soon as I turn my back. Amazingly) 108 557 B
0.3 0.17 (, salesmen with a commission program will) 286.41 557 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.21 (keep at this dif) 108 542 B
0.3 0.21 (f) 183.07 542 B
0.3 0.21 (icult task; I can only conclude that they draw courage from the) 186.62 542 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.09 (commission. Presidents of companies often have bonus programs tied to the prof-) 108 527 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.18 (itability of the company) 108 512 B
0.3 0.18 (. Such plans let the president do well if and only if the) 227.37 512 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (shareholders do well, and thus encourages him to keep the shareholders' interests) 108 497 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(at heart.) 108 482 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.23 (Contracts are an essential ingredient of modern business. Contract milestones) 108 453 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.24 (often include partial payments and thus powerful encouragement to getting on) 108 438 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.15 (with the job. Contract deadlines can include penalty clauses. For example, the) 108 423 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (repaving contract for the Golden Gate Bridge included penalty clauses of tens of) 108 408 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.12 (thousands of dollars per hour for delay in reopening the bridge to traf) 108 393 P
-0.12 (\336c each day) 438.95 393 P
-0.12 (.) 495.24 393 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (Social incentives also work in business. I spend much of my time as a consultant) 108 364 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.2 (and have discovered that one of my tasks is to provide deadlines to my client's) 108 349 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.19 (employees. My visits provide the deadlines for \322charetting it up,\323 for getting all of) 108 334 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.15 (the reports done, for getting the presentations ready) 108 319 B
0.3 0.15 (, and for getting on with the) 364.42 319 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.04 (work. I can and do provide praise for good work. I like to think I have something) 108 304 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (technical to contribute also, but even if I did not, the deadline and appraisal value) 108 289 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(of my visits may easily make them worthwhile to my clients.) 108 274 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (It is not accidental that the word \322company\323 as applied to a business enterprise is) 108 245 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.37 (the same word that we apply to social occasions, as in \322having company\323 or) 108 230 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.2 (\322keeping company\323 or \322being company) 108 215 B
0.3 0.2 (.\323 Indeed, the Hudson's Bay Company) 306.01 215 B
0.3 0.2 (,) 501 215 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.4 (chartered in May 1670, was literally called \322The Governor and Company of) 108 200 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Adventurers of England T) 108 185 T
(rading into Hudson's Bay) 233.22 185 T
(.\323) 354.26 185 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (The corporate form of business as we practice it has a Board of Directors to pro-) 108 156 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.24 (vide policy guidance. The board is elected by the owners of the company) 108 141 B
0.3 0.24 (, the) 482.09 141 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.16 (shareholders, and in turn, the board elects the of) 108 126 P
-0.16 (\336cers of the company who manage) 337.15 126 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "14" 14
%%Page: "15" 15
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(15) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (its day-to-day af) 108 676 B
0.3 0.09 (fairs. In a very real sense, such boards along with the corporate) 188.58 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (of) 108 661 B
0.3 0.08 (f) 117.93 661 B
0.3 0.08 (icers are the Company of Adventurers who do our business. The board meets) 121.34 661 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.05 (quarterly or monthly or) 108 646 P
0.05 (, if necessary) 219.99 646 P
0.05 (, more often. My experience suggests that the) 282.29 646 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.26 (most ef) 108 631 P
-0.26 (fective boards have a measure of fellowship that helps them seek wise deci-) 143.19 631 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.03 (sions together) 108 616 P
0.03 (. When business prospects seem good, there is often humor at board) 174.37 616 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (meetings. It may be that the number of jokes told at board meetings is an impor-) 108 601 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(tant, albeit unreported, leading indicator of the business climate.) 108 586 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(2.8) 108 547 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Stopping a Business) 134.44 547 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.26 (Unlike academia, the capitalist system of free enterprise provides a very clear) 108 520 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (mechanism to detect when to stop, namely lack of prof) 108 505 B
0.3 0.11 (its. Businesses fail when) 379.09 505 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (customers refuse to purchase their products: as one of my venture capital partners) 108 490 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (says, when \322the dogs just don't like the dog food.\323 In fact, most businesses fail;) 108 475 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(few succeed.) 108 460 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (But even in business, it can take courage to stop. Investor courage is required to) 108 431 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (withdraw support from a failing business and its employees, but support must be) 108 416 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (withdrawn if the prospects do not warrant further investment. An investor friend) 108 401 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.17 (of mine said he got into a multi-million dollar unsuccessful investment \322one nickel) 108 386 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(at a time.\323 He couldn't stop.) 108 371 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (Personal courage is required to admit that one's skills do not match the business) 108 342 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.21 (needs. I have admired two chief executives who gracefully turned over control of) 108 327 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.25 (their businesses to others after realizing their own inadequacy; more often the) 108 312 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.16 (incompetent hang on far too long. When a business fails, there are legal details to) 108 297 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.24 (tidy up as well as odds and ends of value to be sold. Individuals who do this well) 108 282 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.05 (can extract value for the owners of the business that might otherwise be lost, but it) 108 267 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.14 (is hard to do a good job while carrying the sense of defeat and loss of a failed busi-) 108 252 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(ness.) 108 237 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (I think that the most subtle form of the courage to stop is to know when to sell a) 108 208 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (security) 108 193 B
0.3 0.06 (. My portfolio of investments is dear to me; they are like old friends, the) 145.66 193 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (family dog, or my ancient automobile. I shudder to part with one. Nevertheless,) 108 178 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (prudent management requires that I sell those that are not destined to be winners) 108 163 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.21 (and use the funds instead to buy better equities. The hard part of course, is decid-) 108 148 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (ing which are not to be winners. It takes courage to sell stocks, far more than it) 108 133 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(takes to buy them.) 108 118 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "15" 15
%%Page: "16" 16
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(16) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(2.9) 108 676 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Investment Courage) 134.44 676 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
-0.25 (I believe that investment courage is in short supply in the United States today) 108 649 P
-0.25 (, indi-) 475.58 649 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.13 (vidually) 108 634 B
0.3 0.13 (, institutionally) 147.58 634 B
0.3 0.13 (, and nationally) 221.96 634 B
0.3 0.13 (. Our collective failures of courage are, I) 298.16 634 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (believe, the cause of our decreasing economic success vis-) 108 619 B
3 14 Q
0.35 0.06 (\210) 395.1 619 B
3 12 Q
0.3 0.06 (-vis our international) 401.38 619 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (competition. Long-term projects take more courage than short-term ones because) 108 604 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (the greater uncertainty of the distant future seems riskier) 108 589 B
0.3 0.06 (, whether or not it really) 384.93 589 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.1 (is. Our industrial and governmental institutions are not, I believe, making the cou-) 108 574 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.31 (rageous long-term investments in education, training, research, development,) 108 559 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (equipment, and infrastructure required for long-term economic strength, and as a) 108 544 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(direct result, we are losing a global economic war) 108 529 T
(.) 346.28 529 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (One reason for the shortsightedness of business in the Unted States today is that) 108 500 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.22 (the pro\336t sharing plans for executives consider only immediate pro\336t and not long-) 108 485 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (term growth. Another reason for business shortsightedness is that the judgement) 108 470 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (of shareholders about winners and losers is based on quarterly results instead of) 108 455 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.2 (long-term gains. Are you aware for example, that although the trading rate on the) 108 440 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (New Y) 108 425 B
0.3 0.03 (ork Stock Exchange is slow enough to turn over all of the securities repre-) 141.57 425 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (sented in about two years,) 108 410 B
3 9.6 Q
0.24 0.07 (1) 235.96 414.8 B
3 12 Q
0.3 0.07 (many companies trade rapidly enough to turn over in) 243.54 410 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.2 (six months or less? I am particularly of) 108 395 B
0.3 0.2 (fended that pension fund holdings turn) 309.25 395 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (over quite quickly even though pension funds, above all, should take a long-term) 108 380 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(view) 108 365 T
(.) 130.55 365 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.51 (W) 108 336 B
0.3 0.51 (e seem unable to make the long-term investments required for economic) 118.88 336 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (strength. Is this because, as some say) 108 321 B
0.3 0.02 (, our cost of capital is too high? John May-) 291.11 321 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 (nard Keynes showed that investment decisions are lar) 108 306 P
0.3 (gely independent of the cost) 367.49 306 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.11 (of capital, but depend only on expectations of future return. Is our inability to face) 108 291 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.05 (long-term investment related to our uncertainty about the future of a world harbor-) 108 276 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.24 (ing nuclear weapons? It can't be, for other nations make long-term investments. Is) 108 261 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (our inability to face long-term investment related to our ethnic diversity) 108 246 B
0.3 0 (, our view) 455.05 246 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.28 (of an end to our abundant supply of raw materials, or is it a symptom of a general) 108 231 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (breakdown in family values? I don't know the reasons, but the facts seem plain:) 108 216 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(we lack courage, and nations with more courage are eating our lunch.) 108 201 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
108 144 504 157 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
108 152 216 152 2 L
0.25 H
2 Z
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
N
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 -208 1000 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.07 (1. In 1990 there were 83,605,000,000 shares represented on the exchange with a total capital value) 108 137.33 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(of about $2,814,429,000,000. About 150,000,000 shares trade each day with a value of about) 108 125.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
($5,000,000,000.) 108 113.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "16" 16
%%Page: "17" 17
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(17) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (W) 108 676 B
0.3 0 (e desperately need ways to encourage investors to hold onto securities for long-) 118.37 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.09 (term gains, and by so doing, encourage them to take an interest in, indeed demand,) 108 661 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (that their companies invest for long-term growth. W) 108 646 B
0.3 0.19 (e desperately need govern-) 369.55 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (mental investment in the intellectual infrastructure of an educated populace conf) 108 631 B
0.3 0 (i-) 496.67 631 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.22 (dent of the long-term future. W) 108 616 B
0.3 0.22 (e have become a \322now\323 nation to the extent of) 269.44 616 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(jeopardizing our future.) 108 601 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 14 Q
(3) 108 534.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Self Encouragement) 122.4 534.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
-0.19 (So much for the institutional mechanisms for helping courage surmount risk. Now) 108 504 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.3 (let me turn to some more personal ones. I of) 108 489 P
-0.3 (fer the confession that I feel both inad-) 319.79 489 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.03 (equately equipped with these mechanisms and all too often unable to apply those I) 108 474 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(have.) 108 459 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (What I f) 108 430 B
0.3 0.08 (ind interesting about the need for personal courage in advanced technol-) 148.59 430 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.41 (ogy is its elusive nature. When my courage has been strong, going forward) 108 415 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (seemed easy; courage seemed unnecessary perhaps, even irrelevant. When my) 108 400 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.32 (courage has failed me, however) 108 385 B
0.3 0.32 (, something else seemed to be wrong; I could) 270.71 385 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (always generate many valid reasons for not moving forward. Courage and cow-) 108 370 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.15 (ardice in technology have seemed to me attributes of other people. I have been) 108 355 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (able to recognize them in myself only in hindsight and only by careful introspec-) 108 340 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(tion.) 108 325 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.28 (By describing how my own failures of courage feel to me, I hope to help you rec-) 108 296 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.13 (ognize such failures in yourselves. I seek to encourage you. I mean that literally) 108 281 P
-0.13 (. I) 494.14 281 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.34 (seek to extend your courage by making you aware of your need for it and by) 108 266 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.13 (describing some symptoms of its failure. I will of) 108 251 B
0.3 0.13 (fer some ways to reduce your) 357.27 251 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (need for courage, to marshal what courage you can muster) 108 236 B
0.3 0.11 (, and to husband your) 396.95 236 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(store of it.) 108 221 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.1) 108 182 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Courage to Start) 134.44 182 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.04 (It's often hard to get started. I always f) 108 155 B
0.3 0.04 (ind it hard to start a lecture and so I cover) 299.25 155 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (my dif) 108 140 B
0.3 0.03 (f) 139.96 140 B
0.3 0.03 (iculty by telling a story) 143.33 140 B
0.3 0.03 (. I select a story in advance, one that is relevant to) 255.94 140 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.23 (my topic, familiar enough to me so that I won't muf) 108 125 B
0.3 0.23 (f it, can establish common) 370.59 125 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "17" 17
%%Page: "18" 18
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(18) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.22 (ground with my audience, and will make them laugh. If it works, my story builds) 108 676 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (rapport with my audience, but more important, their response encourages me, or) 108 661 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(literally gives me the courage, to get on with my topic.) 108 646 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (How often have you found it hard to get started on something? Have you ever) 108 617 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (thought of that dif) 108 602 B
0.3 0.02 (f) 196.01 602 B
0.3 0.02 (iculty as a failure of courage? Recognizing that there are risks) 199.36 602 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.26 (in starting anything new helps reveal the dif) 108 587 P
-0.26 (\336culty of getting started as a reluctance) 316.93 587 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.08 (to overcome those risks. Recognizing that it takes courage to get started may help) 108 572 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(in identifying the excuses you have as excuses, and not reasons.) 108 557 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.2) 108 518 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(What it Feels Like to Me) 134.44 518 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.04 (I feel many dif) 108 491 P
0.04 (ferent risks in getting started. One common one is that, being igno-) 178.88 491 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (rant in the new f) 108 476 B
0.3 0.03 (ield, I will make a fool of myself. Many years ago when I was a) 187.76 476 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 (ham radio operator) 108 461 P
0.3 (, poor operators were called \322lids\323 and were viewed with some) 199.43 461 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.1 (contempt. Faced with such contempt, how was I to learn? W) 108 446 P
0.1 (ell, for a while I was) 404.86 446 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (a lid. Poor computer programmers are likewise looked on with some contempt; I) 108 431 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (have heard their programs described as \322wedged.\323 Whenever we start something) 108 416 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.14 (new) 108 401 P
-0.14 (, we must risk being \322lids\323 or writing \322wedged\323 programs. The risk is real and) 127.21 401 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (has kept many people from setting out in new directions. W) 108 386 B
0.3 0.12 (e prefer to continue) 407.23 386 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(with familiar things because they are, on the whole, less risky than new ones.) 108 371 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.2 (But my failures of courage to start have never felt to me like cowardice. Rather) 108 342 P
0.2 (, I) 493.8 342 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (have been able to invent a host of reasons for not starting, all perfectly rational,) 108 327 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (and all quite valid if irrelevant. There are never enough funds to start the project,) 108 312 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.27 (and the equipment available is never quite right. Often the programming lan-) 108 297 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.1 (guages available do not suit the need, especially if the procrastinator happens to be) 108 282 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.17 (expert at making programming languages and can \336x the problem by doing some-) 108 267 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (thing familiar rather than getting on with the main task. Are you merely building) 108 252 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(tools or are you doing something directly productive?) 108 237 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.14 (Everything we do has an opportunity cost of other things not done. I often use that) 108 208 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.25 (cost as a reason for procrastination, thinking that I am too busy) 108 193 P
0.25 (, or that the invest-) 412.65 193 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.15 (ment of my time to learn something new is too great. It took me a long time to) 108 178 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.14 (work up the courage to face a drawing program on my personal computer because) 108 163 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.11 (I was just too busy to \322take the time.\323 While I was learning the drawing program I) 108 148 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (would not be meeting any of the hundred other demands on my time. In retro-) 108 133 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (spect, I wish I had learned the drawing program earlier) 108 118 B
0.3 0.09 (, for not only has it given) 378.72 118 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "18" 18
%%Page: "19" 19
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(19) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (me great pleasure, but also it has permitted me to explore some geometric ideas I) 108 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.26 (would not otherwise have been able to consider) 108 661 P
-0.26 (. It is all too easy to overemphasize) 333.79 661 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (opportunity cost as a cover for fear; the truth is that I avoided learning to use the) 108 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.21 (drawing program simply because it was unfamiliar and I risked frustration and) 108 631 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (failure. I may have been more sensitive to this risk than some of you might be,) 108 616 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.29 (because I achieved some fame from writing an early drawing program [7]. It) 108 601 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (would be especially embarrassing for me if I should ask dumb questions about a) 108 586 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(drawing program.) 108 571 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (My unwillingness to learn new things, risking frustration or failure, is related to) 108 542 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.23 (another familiar phenomenon. People love their home towns, the model of car that) 108 527 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (they drive, the type of computer they already own, and are especially fond of the) 108 512 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.26 (text editor most familiar to them, especially EMACS. W) 108 497 P
0.26 (e base these loyalties not) 383.66 497 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (on comparative analysis, but on our hidden fears of the unknown. Make no mis-) 108 482 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.13 (take, it takes courage to learn a new computer program\321you face the risk of frus-) 108 467 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (tration at least, and seeming stupid if you ask dumb questions. By the way) 108 452 B
0.3 0.16 (, for) 483.05 452 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(some time now I have been far too busy to learn \322Excel.\323) 108 437 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.3) 108 398 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Overcoming Risks) 134.44 398 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.06 (One start-up aid I have often used is ignorance; to use this approach I avoid ever) 108 371 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.04 (measuring the thickness of the ice. I have often been told that it was a very coura-) 108 356 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (geous act to start the Evans and Sutherland company) 108 341 B
0.3 0.03 (. Had the company failed, it) 364.62 341 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (might have been called foolish rather than courageous, but it certainly didn't feel) 108 326 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.16 (courageous to me at the time. I simply had no idea of the risk I was undertaking. I) 108 311 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (believe that before people have children they have little idea of the risks or they) 108 296 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (might never start. Raising a family is a courageous act, but only for those who) 108 281 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (know how hard it is. One of the wonders of graduate students is that they haven't) 108 266 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (yet learned all of the things that can't be done, and so they are willing and able to) 108 251 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(do some of them.) 108 236 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (A warm-up project is very helpful in getting any new research going. Do some-) 108 207 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (thing fairly easy and carry it all the way through from beginning to end. When I) 108 192 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (was a new graduate student at MIT in 1961, I did a project on solving arbitrary) 108 177 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (wall mazes by computer) 108 162 B
0.3 0.11 (. It involved a few thousand lines of computer program) 227.58 162 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (and some simple equipment. Later on, my warm-up project saved me time in my) 108 147 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(thesis work by helping me avoid problems that I had solved before.) 108 132 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "19" 19
%%Page: "20" 20
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(20) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (More important, my warm-up project gave me valuable experience and the cour-) 108 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.06 (age that comes with experience. After \336nishing it, I knew that I could write a com-) 108 661 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.26 (plex computer program and make it work. My warm-up project encouraged me to) 108 646 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.22 (go on to the lar) 108 631 P
-0.22 (ger programming task involved in thesis work [7] and it encouraged) 179.57 631 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (my sponsors to support the more complex project. My point is that a warm-up) 108 616 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (project not only teaches, but also encourages. Some universities, including MIT) 108 601 B
0.3 0.06 (,) 501 601 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.4 (even require a Master's thesis, a formal warm-up project, before the student) 108 586 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (embarks on a Ph.D. Remember) 108 571 B
0.3 0.01 (, \322programs are like pancakes\320 throw the f) 262.24 571 B
0.3 0.01 (irst one) 467.98 571 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(away) 108 556 T
(.\323) 132.54 556 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.4) 108 517 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Procedures) 134.44 517 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.29 (I used to hate washing dishes. I would delay as long as possible. Eyeing the) 108 490 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.13 (daunting pile of dishes, I would say to myself, \322I'll be here forever at this dumb) 108 475 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (task.\323 The enormity of the task deterred me from starting. I still dislike washing) 108 460 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (dishes, but I now get the dishes done promptly because I learned a simple proce-) 108 445 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (dure for doing the job from my wife's uncle. The procedure starts out \322W) 108 430 B
0.3 0 (ash f) 465.99 430 B
0.3 0 (irst) 488.65 430 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (dish...\323 I have a similar procedure for starting travel vouchers, it goes \322Record) 108 415 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(\336rst expense...\323) 108 400 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (Each of my little procedures embodies two dif) 108 371 B
0.3 0.17 (ferent aids to getting started. By) 339.61 371 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.08 (invoking a familiar procedure I reduce my need for courage. By breaking the task) 108 356 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (into smaller tasks through emphasizing that only the f) 108 341 B
0.3 0.06 (irst dish need be washed or) 370.74 341 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.14 (the \336rst expense need be recorded, I reduce my estimate of risk. Both mechanisms) 108 326 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.26 (work. These sources of courage are sometimes called \322discipline,\323 especially) 108 311 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (when being taught to the young. Discipline relies on a practiced use of routine) 108 296 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.22 (subgoals to avoid defeat by fear) 108 281 B
0.3 0.22 (. Its highest form comes when the Lieutenant,) 268.93 281 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(char) 108 266 T
(ging up a heavily defended hill, says, \322Follow me men!\323\321and they do.) 128.44 266 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.5) 108 227 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Courage to Go On) 134.44 227 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.12 (\322When the going gets tough, the tough go shopping,\323 is the caption to a cartoon) 108 200 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.13 (mocking all inveterate shoppers. Its humor comes from our certainty that when) 108 185 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(the going gets tough, it takes courage to go on rather than to go shopping.) 108 170 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "20" 20
%%Page: "21" 21
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(21) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.6) 108 676 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(What it Feels Like to Me) 134.44 676 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.18 (When I get bogged down in a project, the failure of my courage to go on never) 108 649 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (feels to me like a failure of courage, but always feels like something entirely dif-) 108 634 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (ferent. One such feeling is that my research isn't going anywhere anyhow) 108 619 B
0.3 0.03 (, it isn't) 467.97 619 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (that important. Another feeling involves the ur) 108 604 B
0.3 0.14 (gency of something else. I have) 343.03 604 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.2 (come to recognize these feelings as \322who cares\323 and \322the ur) 108 589 B
0.3 0.2 (gent drives out the) 410.5 589 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(important.\323) 108 574 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (For me, the ur) 108 545 B
0.3 0.14 (gent often takes the form of a crowded desk that must be cleared.) 178.61 545 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.01 (All those letters to write, a timesheet to bring up to date, bills to pay) 108 530 P
-0.01 (, checkbook to) 433.7 530 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (balance, personal computer disk to back up, and a host of other easy little routine) 108 515 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.2 (tasks are available to help me avoid the dif) 108 500 P
0.2 (\336cult big task at hand. Another sense I) 314.72 500 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.1 (have is of the abundance of time remaining to think about the major research task;) 108 485 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (after all, the due date for my report is a year or more away) 108 470 B
0.3 0.06 (. The other tasks with) 394.55 470 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.29 (closer time horizons seem more ur) 108 455 P
-0.29 (gent and thus should get more attention. I cower) 271.97 455 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.28 (behind my routine little tasks to avoid the risks of failure associated with working) 108 440 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(on my main projects.) 108 425 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.02 (If your research feels less important than other tasks, examine your courage. Y) 108 396 P
0.02 (our) 488 396 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (research may indeed be unimportant, and it's OK to abandon projects as unsuc-) 108 381 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.32 (cessful. In fact, I believe it takes courage to abandon projects. T) 108 366 B
0.3 0.32 (o remain in) 445.56 366 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.1 (research, however) 108 351 P
-0.1 (, you must substitute some other research task for the abandoned) 194.71 351 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (one and not simply involve yourself in trivia, however ur) 108 336 B
0.3 0.14 (gent. When examined) 392.46 336 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.13 (critically) 108 321 B
0.3 0.13 (, the ur) 151.16 321 B
0.3 0.13 (gency of the little tasks is never so great as I suppose, nor is the) 186.24 321 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.08 (risk of the big tasks so overwhelming. Many successful researchers recognize that) 108 306 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.12 (and refuse to let the ur) 108 291 P
0.12 (gent drive out the important: Alan Newell of Carnegie Mel-) 216 291 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (lon University and Fred Brooks of the University of North Carolina come to my) 108 276 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(mind as examples; they share an admirable ability to decline trivia.) 108 261 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.7) 108 222 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Overcoming Risks) 134.44 222 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.2 (The inability to produce a new idea is a special risk in research. I have found that) 108 195 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (a change of scene helps to gel my thoughts on a new subject. I escape from the) 108 180 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.27 (local pressures by going far away in an airplane, or not so far to a quiet library) 108 165 P
0.27 (, or) 487.74 165 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.13 (even closer to the seclusion of my study) 108 150 B
0.3 0.13 (, particularly early in the morning. The) 306.95 150 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (important thing about all these retreats for me is that I can cast aside the ur) 108 135 B
0.3 0.16 (gent) 482.87 135 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (problems; the phone won't ring, the checkbook can't be balanced, and I can focus) 108 120 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "21" 21
%%Page: "22" 22
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(22) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (on my lar) 108 676 B
0.3 0.06 (ger tasks with a fresh mind. After each of two extended \322vacations\323 in) 154.96 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.26 (Australia, I returned with patentable ideas [8, 9], and on a third such trip developed) 108 661 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.15 (a new algorithm for building vector quantization code books [13]. I sometimes) 108 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.31 (jokingly start out describing these ideas by saying, \322When I was lying on the) 108 631 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (beach...\323 The combination of a change of location, rest, and lack of distraction) 108 616 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.03 (seems to be ef) 108 601 P
-0.03 (fective for me. Some universities formalize such changes as sabbat-) 176.02 601 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(ical leave.) 108 586 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.19 (This kind of change of scene works locally too. Enjoy letting of) 108 557 P
0.19 (f steam with your) 419.09 557 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.26 (family or your drinking buddies. Perhaps it will give you a fresh viewpoint on your) 108 542 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (technical problems or at least more courage to face them. I have often \322helped\323) 108 527 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.22 (friends debug their computer programs merely by asking for an explanation of) 108 512 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (how the program works. Midway through the explanation, my friend will strike) 108 497 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (his head and say) 108 482 B
0.3 0.12 (, \322Oh, that's the bug.\323 I did nothing but provide the encourage-) 189.03 482 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(ment for one more look at how the program was supposed to work.) 108 467 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.17 (Pride of) 108 438 P
-0.17 (fers personal encouragement. W) 145.94 438 P
-0.17 (e all have pride in a job well done. I often) 302.58 438 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.25 (feel like the child learning to tie his own shoes determined to do it himself. I think,) 108 423 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.29 (\322I'll show them that I can do it,\323 so strongly that I must work hard at my task to sat-) 108 408 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(isfy my own pride. T) 108 393 T
(ake pride in your work.) 211.15 393 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (When the going gets tough, discipline is another good mechanism for going on.) 108 364 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (My algorithm for washing dishes continues with the sequence \322...WHILE dishes) 108 349 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.29 (remain, DO wash next dish...\323 Notice again the two aids of) 108 334 P
-0.29 (fered by this procedure.) 390.9 334 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.09 (First, it makes the task routine; I have a known procedure to apply) 108 319 P
-0.09 (. Second, it lim-) 424.37 319 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (its the task to considering only the next dish, thus reducing my perception of the) 108 304 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(risk.) 108 289 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.12 (Ef) 108 260 P
-0.12 (fective novelists write for several hours every day) 119.11 260 P
-0.12 (, successful musicians practice) 357.07 260 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.26 (several hours every day) 108 245 B
0.3 0.26 (, and successful athletes train several hours every day) 227.85 245 B
0.3 0.26 (.) 501 245 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.28 (Should not a successful researcher discipline himself to research for several hours) 108 230 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (every day? The novelist writes a chapter a day) 108 215 B
0.3 0.07 (, the musician does his scales and) 338.87 215 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (his selections each day) 108 200 B
0.3 0.04 (, and the athlete does his setting up exercises and his main) 218.78 200 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.28 (event. Each uses routine subtasks. I believe which particular routine sub tasks you) 108 185 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.19 (choose are far less important than that you discipline yourself to do them regularly) 108 170 P
-0.19 (.) 501 170 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.29 (My technology heroes have the courage to devote a period each day to the impor-) 108 155 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(tant tasks, leaving the merely ur) 108 140 T
(gent ones to fester if necessary) 261.1 140 T
(.) 407.94 140 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "22" 22
%%Page: "23" 23
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(23) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.17 (Y) 108 676 P
-0.17 (ou can set your own personal deadlines and provide yourself rewards for meeting) 115.46 676 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.19 (them. This mechanism works less well for me, but I do sometimes use it, often in) 108 661 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (the most childish way) 108 646 B
0.3 0.01 (. If I work hard today) 213.29 646 B
0.3 0.01 (, I'll permit myself a drink before din-) 320.13 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.22 (ner or dessert afterwards. In fact, I \336nd that when I am really engaged in interest-) 108 631 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(ing work I for) 108 616 T
(get to eat, but when my work is overly stressful, I gain weight.) 174.77 616 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.28 (Do not overlook family and friends as an explicit source of encouragement. Af) 108 587 P
-0.28 (fec-) 485.35 587 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (tion from family and friends can provide conf) 108 572 B
0.3 0.03 (idence to face the world outside. A) 330.31 572 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (great man once said to me, \322Get your priorities right: family) 108 557 B
0.3 0.03 (, friends, business, in) 401.08 557 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (that order) 108 542 B
0.3 0.01 (.\323 Another great man told me, \322If things aren't right at home, nothing is) 154.05 542 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.22 (right.\323 I f) 108 527 B
0.3 0.22 (ind that I am best able to do creative work when I feel cared for and) 158.88 527 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.25 (happy; it is as if I can devote my \336nite store of courage either to solving technical) 108 512 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(problems or personal ones, but not both at once.) 108 497 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.8) 108 458 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Courage to Talk or Write) 134.44 458 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.11 (Perhaps the hardest part of research is talking about it, writing about it and pub-) 108 431 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.24 (lishing it. Here we really get down to the big risks. When all is said and done, will) 108 416 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.28 (my reputation outlast my publishing this very paper? Suppose someone thinks that) 108 401 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (my ideas about courage are bad. Suppose I am criticized for them. Suppose my) 108 386 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.02 (writing is inadequate or unacceptable. In truth, it's often easier to start a project or) 108 371 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (get on with it than it is to present the results. Robert Heinlein, author of) 108 356 B
6 F
0.3 0.01 (Stranger) 461.95 356 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.26 (In a Strange Land) 108 341 P
3 F
0.26 (, said in an editorial on professional authorship that you have to) 195.79 341 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (send stories, articles, and novels to editor after editor and risk rejection slips or) 108 326 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.15 (you'll never get published. I know several unpublished authors of incomplete nov-) 108 311 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.04 (els. There is less risk in \322writing the great American novel\323 than in sending it to a) 108 296 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(publisher and waiting for it to be rejected.) 108 281 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.9) 108 242 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(What it Feels Like to Me) 134.44 242 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.18 (My own failures of courage to talk or write do not, to me, seem like failures of) 108 215 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.24 (courage at all. Rather) 108 200 B
0.3 0.24 (, it seems to me that my ideas are unworthy) 219.91 200 B
0.3 0.24 (, that no one) 440.87 200 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.18 (would be interested, or that they are not yet well enough expressed. Recall the) 108 185 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.2 (maze solving work I did in 1960 as a warm-up project. I was so sure no one would) 108 170 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.28 (care about it that I never \322bothered\323 to publish it until 1969 [5]. It turned out that) 108 155 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.27 (my 1960 work drew questions even many years after publication, so someone) 108 140 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(must have cared.) 108 125 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "23" 23
%%Page: "24" 24
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(24) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (This very talk is another example for me. The chronology of this paper is shown) 108 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.15 (in T) 108 661 P
-0.15 (able 1 on the next page. I \336rst began to think about these ideas in the mid 70\325) 126.68 661 P
-0.15 (s,) 496.33 661 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (but it took me until 1982 to f) 108 646 B
0.3 0 (irst express them publicly) 247.84 646 B
0.3 0 (. I wouldn't have done that) 371.67 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (except that my good friend, Marc Raibert, invited me to give an informal talk to) 108 631 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (some new graduate students. That being a low risk event, I agreed. Next thing I) 108 616 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (knew the \322informal talk\323 had turned into a \322distinguished lecture\323 complete with) 108 601 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.13 (TV camera and an auditorium full of people, but I was committed, and I talked.) 108 586 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.12 (Six years later) 108 571 P
0.12 (, I \336nally worked up the courage to get the video tape transcribed. I) 176.41 571 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (was, and still am, literally too afraid to look at it myself. Now) 108 556 B
0.3 0.16 (, two more years) 420.77 556 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(later) 108 541 T
(, I am writing the ideas down more formally) 128.84 541 T
(.) 340.37 541 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.06 (My pride demands that this written form of my ideas be perfect. I sought long and) 108 267 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (hard for an Anglo-Saxon word combining the ideas of disclose, publish, report,) 108 252 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (and talk about. I have f) 108 237 B
0.3 0.02 (inally chosen the compound \322talk or write\323 to mean all of) 223.27 237 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.19 (them, focusing most on public oral presentation, for it seems to take the most cour-) 108 222 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (age. I fear criticism of my choice. In addition, I fear that you will think my ideas) 108 207 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (irrelevant, stupid, or even wrong. I fear coming to an end of this work; at some) 108 192 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (point I shall have to release this paper to the publisher and I will have lost a good) 108 177 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(friend.) 108 162 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.03 (But in both of these failures of my courage, during my procrastinating period I did) 108 133 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.25 (not feel afraid. Rather) 108 118 P
-0.25 (, I believed simply that no one would be interested; my ideas) 214.81 118 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 10 Q
(September 16, 1982) 132 499.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(First presented as a distinguished lecture) 312 499.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(at CMU) 312 488.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Mid-1983) 132 468.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Publication suggested by my daughter) 312 468.33 T
(,) 464.37 468.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Juliet) 312 457.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Mid-1987) 132 437.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(V) 312 437.33 T
(ideo tape obtained from CMU) 318.62 437.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(April 8, 1988) 132 417.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(T) 312 417.33 T
(ranscribed from the video tape) 317.76 417.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(January 28, 1990) 132 397.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Edited into this paper) 312 397.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(June 1990) 132 377.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Published by CMU) 312 377.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(September 1990) 132 357.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Presented at the 25th anniversary celebra-) 312 357.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.24 (tion of the Computer Science Department) 312 346.33 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(at CMU) 312 335.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
7 F
(T) 126 307 T
(able 1:) 131.37 307 T
3 12 Q
(Chronology of This Document) 165.83 307 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
126 511.75 126 328.25 2 L
V
0.5 H
0 Z
N
306 512.25 306 327.75 2 L
V
N
486 511.75 486 328.25 2 L
V
N
125.75 512 486.25 512 2 L
V
N
125.75 481 486.25 481 2 L
V
N
125.75 450 486.25 450 2 L
V
N
125.75 430 486.25 430 2 L
V
N
125.75 410 486.25 410 2 L
V
N
125.75 390 486.25 390 2 L
V
N
125.75 370 486.25 370 2 L
V
N
125.75 328 486.25 328 2 L
V
N
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "24" 24
%%Page: "25" 25
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(25) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (seemed unimportant, irrelevant, and immaterial. I'm still reasonably sure no one) 108 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(will care about my ideas on courage, but my deadline approaches.) 108 661 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.2 (Who among my audience has unpublished work that \322no one will care about?\323) 108 632 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.03 (Who among my audience has a paper partly written but not yet "quite right?" Who) 108 617 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.11 (the hell are you to judge? The rule for research is that you get credit only for ideas) 108 602 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (you have disclosed, not for ideas kept secret. It is absolutely true that the paper) 108 587 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (never submitted is never rejected, but of course, it is never published, either) 108 572 B
0.3 0.19 (. I) 489.82 572 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.15 (believe that it is better to be the published author of a slightly f) 108 557 B
0.3 0.15 (lawed document) 422.82 557 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(than the unpublished author of a perfect one.) 108 542 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.35 (Because I spell in original ways and my handwriting is illegible, writing has) 108 513 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.2 (always been a great embarrassment to me. When I got a typewriter half of the) 108 498 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.2 (problem went away; long ago I learned to type faster than I can write by hand.) 108 483 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.26 (W) 108 468 P
0.26 (ith a computer spelling checker that will make suggestions I am even better of) 118.85 468 P
0.26 (f,) 497 468 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.28 (but not yet free of risk. I remember well when Claude Shannon, my thesis supervi-) 108 453 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.09 (sor) 108 438 P
0.09 (, chastised me for spelling the top to bottom measurement of an electrical wave) 122.18 438 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (form \322peek to peek\323 rather than \322peak to peak.\323 I had put, as my V) 108 423 B
0.3 0.09 (ictorian aunt) 442.26 423 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (used to say) 108 408 B
0.3 0.05 (, \322a blot in my copybook.\323 Even today) 161.74 408 B
0.3 0.05 (, I'm not sure which spelling is) 353.38 408 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.04 (which and had to look them up in a dictionary because my spelling checker cannot) 108 393 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.02 (distinguish cognates. I also once spelled naval incorrectly in a letter to my brother) 108 378 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.01 (who was then in the Naval Reserve. Unfortunately) 108 363 P
-0.01 (, I put that blot on the outside of) 349.76 363 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(the envelope.) 108 348 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.10) 108 309 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Overcoming Risks) 142.07 309 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.01 (It may be that everyone is embarrassed by his own writing, especially at the start.) 108 282 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.29 (That courage to get a paper done is made up of a subcourage to start and a subcour-) 108 267 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (age to go on, and a subcourage to stop perfecting it. The hardest part of writing) 108 252 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.27 (seems to be getting the \336rst rough draft. Of course it won\325) 108 237 P
0.27 (t be perfect. Of course) 392.68 237 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (it won\325) 108 222 B
0.3 0.09 (t be complete. But at least a f) 143.03 222 B
0.3 0.09 (irst draft gives you something to work with) 290.56 222 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (and can encourage you to go on. Apply everything you have learned here to the) 108 207 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(task of getting that \336rst draft.) 108 192 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.24 (I have learned three tricks that make talking and writing easier) 108 163 B
0.3 0.24 (. First, J. C. R.) 425.71 163 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (Licklider taught me to treat an unfamiliar topic by making lists of things to say) 108 148 B
0.3 0 (. I) 490.39 148 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.23 (call this kind of presentation the \322enumeration special.\323 For example, in this paper) 108 133 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.26 (I describe four kinds of courage: to start, to go on, to talk or write, and to stop. The) 108 118 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "25" 25
%%Page: "26" 26
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(26) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.24 (enumeration special is ef) 108 676 B
0.3 0.24 (fective, though trite. Second, my late mother of) 234.27 676 B
0.3 0.24 (fered) 478.4 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (advice on the choice of words in English, pointing out that Anglo-Saxon words) 108 661 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.25 (have more punch than Roman ones. Just try to think of a Roman swear word.) 108 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (Unfortunately) 108 631 B
0.3 0.12 (, technologists seem to think that polysyllabic circumlocutions are) 176.09 631 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (better than short words. Pick Anglo-Saxon names for things and they will last.) 108 616 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (Third, because English was spoken long before it was written, good English writ-) 108 601 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.2 (ing is always easy to read out loud. I am always suspicious of single words or) 108 586 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (phrases placed in parenthesis because they have no spoken equivalent. Examine) 108 571 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.05 (each use of the symbols "\050" and "\051" in your papers. Do they destroy your ability to) 108 556 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.32 (read the writing out loud? Could you rephrase what you have to say in plain) 108 541 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.25 (English, for example, by using a phrase instead of a single word in parenthesis? I) 108 526 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (suspect that parentheses creep into English writing when the author is either too) 108 511 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(lazy or too muddled to write down exactly what he means.) 108 496 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (Dif) 108 467 B
0.3 0.1 (ferent types of publications are available to document ideas. Every technical) 124.07 467 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (or) 108 452 B
0.3 0.02 (ganization has an internal report series. T) 117.83 452 B
0.3 0.02 (echnical material for a wider audience) 318.05 452 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.22 (appears in conference proceedings, journal articles, or books. However) 108 437 B
0.3 0.22 (, I have) 466.21 437 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (found greatest value from the least formal type of publication possible, informal) 108 422 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.17 (memos. My group at Harvard in 1966 named its series of internal memos the \322dis-) 108 407 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (play f) 108 392 B
0.3 0.02 (ile,\323 a pun not only on the name of the part of computer memory that stores) 135.42 392 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (the output picture but also on the open f) 108 377 B
0.3 0.01 (ile cabinet in which we kept these memos) 301.33 377 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (for easy access by any member of our group. My associates and I have used dis-) 108 362 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (play f) 108 347 B
0.3 0.09 (ile memos ever since to record new ideas, new mathematical formulations,) 135.85 347 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (new circuits, and anything else that strikes our fancy) 108 332 B
0.3 0.1 (, including local procedures) 367.16 332 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (for ordering lunch. Our series of display f) 108 317 B
0.3 0.14 (ile memos has become my archive of) 318.91 317 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.27 (familiar things from the past, an archive to which I turn from time to time for) 108 302 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.3 (reminders. Some of them have later become patents, some full-\337edged papers, and) 108 287 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.17 (some portions of books. Initially) 108 272 P
0.17 (, however) 267.38 272 P
0.17 (, each was just my record of some little) 314.38 272 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(idea not always well expressed.) 108 257 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.11) 108 218 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Learning from Others) 142.07 218 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
-0.2 (Although it obviously takes courage to expose your ideas to criticism, it takes even) 108 191 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (more courage to learn from the criticism. The not-invented-here \050NIH\051 syndrome) 108 176 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (is rampant in technology) 108 161 B
0.3 0.14 (. People cling to their own ideas. Naturally) 230.44 161 B
0.3 0.14 (, you and I) 450.39 161 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.17 (don't do that, it's just that our ideas, like our favorite text editor) 108 146 P
-0.17 (, are better than oth-) 407.73 146 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(ers.) 108 131 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "26" 26
%%Page: "27" 27
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(27) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.29 (A good way to learn clearly from what others say to you is to play back their words) 108 676 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (immediately to them. I used this mechanism with the industrial sponsors of the) 108 661 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (Silicon Structures Project at Caltech. T) 108 646 B
0.3 0.1 (wice a year we presented our results at a) 303.53 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.15 (two day sponsor's meeting. W) 108 631 P
0.15 (e used the last half day as a feedback session where) 255.26 631 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.3 (each sponsor's representative made comments about our work. I took careful) 108 616 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (notes. After each sponsor had spoken, I played back what I thought he had said.) 108 601 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (The sponsors liked the immediate feedback because they knew that I had heard) 108 586 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (their comments and because they got a chance to correct my notes. I learned this) 108 571 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(trick in a class on domestic relations, but it serves well in nearly any context.) 108 556 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.12) 108 517 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Courage to Stop) 142.07 517 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.1 (The risk of stopping work on a project is also lar) 108 490 B
0.3 0.1 (ge. First, there's the loss of the) 349.24 490 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.22 (goal you will never reach. Second, there's a loss of face in giving up a task in) 108 475 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.15 (which you have believed. Third, there's the waste of the time you have already) 108 460 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.29 (invested in the project and the knowledge about it you have gained. Fourth, there) 108 445 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (is the criticism you may face for having wasted the investment. Finally) 108 430 B
0.3 0.1 (, there is) 461.52 430 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(the risk of having to \336nd something new to do.) 108 415 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.13) 108 376 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(What it Feels Like to Me) 142.07 376 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.01 (Failures to stop don't feel like failures of courage to me. Rather they feel like I'm) 108 349 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.11 (still \322doing my thing.\323 I'm involved with the people and they have become mean-) 108 334 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.22 (ingful to me. I know the vocabulary) 108 319 P
0.22 (. Success, it seems, is always just a month or) 284.1 319 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.02 (two away) 108 304 P
-0.02 (. I know that with just a little more ef) 153.52 304 P
-0.02 (fort, we can make something really) 334.79 304 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(good. The incremental reward always seems to outweigh the incremental ef) 108 289 T
(fort.) 473.7 289 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(3.14) 108 250 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Overcoming Risks) 142.07 250 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.06 (T) 108 223 B
0.3 0.06 (ed Meyer and I once noticed that every architecture for a computer display sys-) 114.55 223 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (tem can be improved for just a little more money [6]. This kind of observation) 108 208 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (of) 108 193 B
0.3 0.11 (fers a reason to stop a research program because it has proven to be recursive.) 117.99 193 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (Another example of a good reason to stop is that you are proven wrong. Martin) 108 178 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.1 (Newell and I once spent days trying to prove a geometry theorem until we discov-) 108 163 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(ered a counter example. No wonder it was so hard to prove.) 108 148 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "27" 27
%%Page: "28" 28
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(28) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (I stopped doing graphics research just after Bob Sproull, Bob Schumacker) 108 676 B
0.3 0.08 (, and I) 472.59 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (wrote) 108 661 B
6 F
0.3 0.09 (A Characterization of T) 139.16 661 B
0.3 0.09 (en Hidden Surface Algorithms) 255.36 661 B
3 F
0.3 0.09 ([3]. W) 407.82 661 B
0.3 0.09 (e discovered) 442.4 661 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (that the task of computing which surfaces of a solid object are hidden and which) 108 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (are visible is a sorting problem. Moreover) 108 631 B
0.3 0.02 (, we were able to build a taxonomy for) 315.18 631 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.06 (hidden surface algorithms on the basis of the types of sorting used and the order of) 108 616 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (variables sorted. Realizing that new hidden surface algorithms would merely be) 108 601 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (elaborations on sorting killed my interest in the problem. Since then, of course,) 108 586 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.29 (younger and more courageous people have made ever more beautiful pictures at a) 108 571 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.12 (pace I cannot hope to match. Maybe the truth is that I stopped for lack of courage) 108 556 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(to compete; I don't think so, but I'll never know) 108 541 T
(.) 334.86 541 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 14 Q
(4) 108 474.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Rewards) 122.4 474.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 12 Q
(4.1) 108 434 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(The Emotional Side of Research) 134.44 434 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
-0.12 (One of the greatest thrills for me is when a new idea emer) 108 407 P
-0.12 (ges. In 1986, at Imperial) 384.28 407 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (College in London, I was working with complementary metal oxide semiconduc-) 108 392 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.22 (tor \050CMOS\051 integrated circuits. I was attempting to design circuits that would) 108 377 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.28 (operate very fast, but I had inadequate computer support for simulating them.) 108 362 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (Because I couldn't simulate the circuits, I had to think about the problem instead.) 108 347 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (Fortunately for me, the circuits I was working on used a lot of Muller C elements) 108 332 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.21 (and XOR gates, both of which are symmetric with respect to ones and zeros at) 108 317 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 (input and output. Because of this symmetry) 108 302 P
0.3 (, I began to notice that my logic gates) 321.3 302 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.02 (behaved as ampli\336ers, and that the more complex a logic gate was, the less good it) 108 287 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.05 (was at ampli\336cation. The simplest inverter makes the best ampli\336er) 108 272 P
0.05 (. It seemed as) 435.48 272 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.26 (though each gate had only so much ability to exert \322ef) 108 257 B
0.3 0.26 (fort\323 and could put that) 384.82 257 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(ef) 108 242 T
(fort either into ampli\336cation or into doing logic, but not both.) 117.11 242 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.05 (Once I understood the idea, I gave it the obvious name: \322logical ef) 108 213 P
-0.05 (fort.\323 Using the) 426.15 213 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.11 (idea of logical ef) 108 198 B
0.3 0.11 (fort, and without going to the trouble of optimizing them, I can) 191.6 198 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (predict quite accurately the least possible delay for most CMOS logic circuits, lit-) 108 183 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (erally on the back of an envelope. If the optimum circuit is required, I can easily) 108 168 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.09 (compute the transistor sizes required for least delay) 108 153 P
0.09 (. More important, I can decide) 354.81 153 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(how to change the topology of the circuit to reduce overall delay) 108 138 T
(.) 417.49 138 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "28" 28
%%Page: "29" 29
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(29) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (I want to describe what it felt like to make this discovery) 108 676 B
0.3 0.17 (. I had worked on the) 393.62 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.13 (problem for some months, designing many circuits. About a week before I \336nally) 108 661 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.22 (understood and was able to name logical ef) 108 646 B
0.3 0.22 (fort, I began to sense a distinct and) 326.71 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.14 (strong feeling that there was an important idea to be found. I can only describe the) 108 631 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.01 (feeling as smelling the idea inside the complexity) 108 616 P
0.01 (. Much as a dog is sure a bone is) 344.93 616 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.26 (buried beneath the earth, I was sure there was something simple and beautiful) 108 601 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(beneath the complexity of my task; I had but to dig it out.) 108 586 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.04 (But the idea wasn't captured until I wrote a very crude paper about the idea for my) 108 557 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (friend and colleague, Bob Sproull. Bob, I was sure, would be able both to under-) 108 542 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (stand the still slightly vague idea, and to help enunciate it. Moreover) 108 527 B
0.3 0.06 (, I was sure) 447.74 527 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.18 (that he would not dump criticism on me. From then on, it was all much easier) 108 512 B
0.3 0.18 (.) 501 512 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.24 (The very name, logical ef) 108 497 P
0.24 (fort, captured the essential feature of the idea. Bob and I) 231.7 497 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (formulated the idea, that is, expressed it as a formula, as the ratio of the electrical) 108 482 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (capacitance at the input of the logic gate to the current at its output normalized to) 108 467 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (the corresponding ability of an inverter) 108 452 B
0.3 0.08 (. This ratio turns out also to express how) 299.81 452 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.04 (much slower than an inverter each type of gate will be if driving a gate identical to) 108 437 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (itself. More complex logic gates turn out to have higher logical ef) 108 422 B
0.3 0.02 (fort; the theory) 431.1 422 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (quantif) 108 407 B
0.3 0.19 (ies how much higher) 142.69 407 B
0.3 0.19 (. My second paper on the subject was more under-) 246.94 407 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (standable, and with subsequent exposure to a number of students, Bob and I have) 108 392 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (made the idea of logical ef) 108 377 B
0.3 0.05 (fort very easy to teach. W) 238.32 377 B
0.3 0.05 (e are now trying to work up) 367.53 377 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 (the courage to f) 108 362 B
0.3 0.09 (inish our book on the subject. Naturally it feels as though we do) 184.58 362 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(not have the time.) 108 347 T
3 9.6 Q
(2) 193.99 351.8 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0.3 0.11 (Those of us who come after and have the advantage of previous discovery often) 108 318 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.05 (for) 108 303 P
0.05 (get just how hard those discoveries were. When Steinmetz \336rst used imaginary) 121.78 303 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.31 (numbers to describe alternating current, only very few people understood the) 108 288 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.21 (required math. Now every under) 108 273 B
0.3 0.21 (graduate electrical engineer becomes familiar) 275.04 273 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (with the square root of minus one, although they spell it j, rather than i, as mathe-) 108 258 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (maticians do. Many of my young friends at Apple Computer know the Gouraud) 108 243 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.26 (shading [10] and Phong shading [1) 108 228 P
-0.26 (1] algorithms. When I asked them who Gouraud) 273.89 228 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (and Phong were, none knew that both were graduate students at the time of their) 108 213 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.12 (discoveries, nor even thought of them as real people. Certainly they don't remem-) 108 198 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (ber) 108 183 B
0.3 0.04 (, as I do, how hard we thought it would be to make beautiful pictures by com-) 122.96 183 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.03 (puter before Gouraud and Phong. It's always much easier in hindsight. Indeed, I) 108 168 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 (think of scientif) 108 153 B
0.3 0.05 (ic progress as the reduction of subjects from complete mystery to) 184.73 153 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(teachable form.) 108 138 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
108 120 504 133 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
108 128 216 128 2 L
0.25 H
2 Z
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
N
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 612 792 C
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 10 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(2. 1995 update: Still no book, but we did publish a paper [14] on the subject.) 108 113.33 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "29" 29
%%Page: "30" 30
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(30) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.21 (The best personal sources of courage are self con\336dence and comfort with yourself) 108 676 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.01 (and your peers. In some people, these develop early) 108 661 P
0.01 (. In others, they never appear) 358.95 661 P
0.01 (.) 501 661 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (If you can f) 108 646 B
0.3 0.08 (ind things that bolster your own self conf) 164.82 646 B
0.3 0.08 (idence, you can use them to) 367.17 646 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.16 (good ef) 108 631 B
0.3 0.16 (fect. I f) 145.49 631 B
0.3 0.16 (ind that I have only so much room for taking risks. When I can) 185.26 631 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.05 (reduce the risk in some places in my life, I can more easily face risk in other areas.) 108 616 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.28 (I provide myself the courage to do some things by reducing my need for courage in) 108 601 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(other areas. In ef) 108 586 T
(fect, I husband my courage.) 191.41 586 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 F
(4.2) 108 547 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
( Technology as Play) 134.44 547 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
0.3 0.26 (The basic personal start-up mechanism for research has to be curiosity) 108 520 B
0.3 0.26 (. I f) 466.35 520 B
0.3 0.26 (ind) 488.14 520 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (myself curious about how something works, or I observe something strange and) 108 505 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.26 (begin to explore it. Because I am fond of symmetry) 108 490 P
0.26 (, when I observe some simple) 360.08 490 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (symmetry) 108 475 B
0.3 0.02 (, I am almost inexorably drawn into exploring it. For example, one day) 155.38 475 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 (Don Oestreicher) 108 460 B
0.3 0.06 (, who was then a graduate student, and I noticed that the number) 187.62 460 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (of random wires expected to cross the midsection of an N terminal printed circuit) 108 445 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (board is N/4 independent of whether the wires connect two or three terminals on) 108 430 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.2 (the board. This comes about because although the probability of crossing is higher) 108 415 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.14 (for wires connecting three terminals, 3/4 rather than 1/2, the number of wires is) 108 400 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.34 (correspondingly reduced from N/2 to N/3. This simple observation led us to) 108 385 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.13 (explore other wiring patterns, gather some data from real printed circuit boards,) 108 370 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.24 (and eventually to publish a paper [4] called) 108 355 B
6 F
0.3 0.24 (How Big Should a Printed Cir) 331.82 355 B
0.3 0.24 (cuit) 485.28 355 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Boar) 108 340 T
(d Be?) 131.56 340 T
3 F
( Follow your curiosity) 159.22 340 T
(.) 268.44 340 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (Beauty provides another form of personal encouragement for me. Some of the) 108 311 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.26 (products of research are just pretty) 108 296 B
0.3 0.26 (, although mathematicians prefer to use the) 284.34 296 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 (word \322elegant.\323 The simplicity of E=MC) 108 281 B
3 9.6 Q
0.24 0.17 (2) 317.04 285.8 B
3 12 Q
0.3 0.17 (, the elegance of information theory) 322.02 281 B
0.3 0.17 (,) 501 281 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (and the power of an undecidability proof are examples. I got interested in asyn-) 108 266 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.24 (chronous circuits by discovering a very simple form of \336rst in \336rst out \050FIFO\051 stor-) 108 251 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.15 (age that has rather complete symmetry [1,8]. It simply amazes me that my simple) 108 236 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.13 (and symmetric circuit can \322know\323 which way to pass data forward. The beauty) 108 221 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(itself piques my curiosity and \337atters my pride.) 108 206 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.3 (Simplicity is to be valued in research results. Many students ask, \322How long) 108 177 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (should my thesis be?\323 It would be better for them to ask, \322How short can it be?\323) 108 162 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.41 (The best work is always simply expressed. If you f) 108 147 B
0.3 0.41 (ind something simple to) 378.34 147 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.29 (explore, do not turn it aside as trivial, especially if it appears to be new) 108 132 P
0.29 (. In a very) 451.2 132 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.15 (real sense, research is a form of play in which ideas are our toys and our objective) 108 117 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "30" 30
%%Page: "31" 31
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(31) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (is the creation of new castles from the old building block set. The courage to do) 108 676 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (research comes in part from our attraction to the simplicity and beauty of our cre-) 108 661 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(ations.) 108 646 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0 (I, for one, am and will always remain a practicing technologist. When denied my) 108 617 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 (minimum daily adult dose of technology) 108 602 B
0.3 0.01 (, I get grouchy) 304.05 602 B
0.3 0.01 (. I believe that technology) 374.29 602 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (is fun, especially when computers are involved, a sort of grand game or puzzle) 108 587 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 (with ever so neat parts to \336t together) 108 572 P
0 (. I have turned down several lucrative admin-) 283.02 572 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.21 (istrative jobs because they would deny me that fun. If the technology you do isn't) 108 557 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.05 (fun for you, you may wish to seek other employment. W) 108 542 P
0.05 (ithout the fun, none of us) 383.07 542 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(would go on.) 108 527 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (I tried to capture the spirit of research as a game in my paper about our walking) 108 498 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.12 (robot [2]. Unfortunately) 108 483 B
0.3 0.12 (, the editors removed from my paper all of the personal) 229.7 483 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.26 (comments, the little poem about the robot by Claude Shannon, the pranks and) 108 468 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 (jokes, and in short, the fun. The only fun they left was the title:) 108 453 B
6 F
0.3 0.02 (Footprints in the) 422.42 453 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.23 (Asphalt.) 108 438 P
3 F
-0.23 ( All too often, technical reports are dull third person descriptions of some-) 147.67 438 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.08 (thing far away and impersonal. T) 108 423 B
0.3 0.08 (echnology is not far away and impersonal. It's) 274 423 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(here, it's intensely personal, and it's great fun.) 108 408 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
1 14 Q
(5) 108 341.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Acknowledgements) 122.4 341.67 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0.3 0.4 (This is where I get to recognize my friends, my sponsors and my sources of) 108 311 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.15 (encouragement. Thanks to Sara Kiesler whose critical reading was key in making) 108 296 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (this paper presentable. Thanks to my partners in business, Dave Evans and Bob) 108 281 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.22 (Sproull, for a lifetime of intellectual stimulation and friendship. Special thanks to) 108 266 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.19 (my brother) 108 251 B
0.3 0.19 (, Bert Sutherland, who has both taught and encouraged me since we) 162.74 251 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.25 (were boys. I also thank my children, Juliet and Dean, and the few other close) 108 236 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.22 (friends without whose encouragement I would not have been willing to talk or) 108 221 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.21 (write about these ideas. The work reported here was supported by Sutherland,) 108 206 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (Sproull, and Associates, Inc., independent consultants in computer hardware and) 108 191 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 (software, and by Advanced T) 108 176 B
0.3 0.1 (echnology V) 252.8 176 B
0.3 0.1 (entures, private investors in high tech-) 314.57 176 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(nology start-up companies.) 108 161 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "31" 31
%%Page: "32" 32
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(32) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
4 F
(References) 272.46 676 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 F
([1] Sutherland, I.E. "Micropipelines.") 108 647 T
6 F
(Communications of the ACM) 297.77 647 T
3 F
(. June 1989.) 437.44 647 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.18 ([2] Sutherland, I.E., and Ullner) 108 618 B
0.3 0.18 (, M.K. "Footprints in the Asphalt.") 263.67 618 B
6 F
0.3 0.18 ( The Interna-) 438.14 618 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(tional Journal of Robotics Resear) 108 603 T
(ch) 269.56 603 T
3 F
(. V) 280.88 603 T
(ol. 3, No. 2. Summer 1984, MIT Press.) 297 603 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.1 ([3] Sutherland, I.E., Sproull, R.F) 108 574 B
0.3 0.1 (., and Schumacker) 268.98 574 B
0.3 0.1 (, R.A. "A Characterization of) 359.46 574 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.2 (T) 108 559 P
-0.2 (en HiddenSurface Algorithms.") 114.49 559 P
6 F
-0.2 (Computing Surveys: Journal of the ACM) 271.56 559 P
3 F
-0.2 (. March) 466.88 559 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(1974. Summarized in) 108 544 T
6 F
(Naval Resear) 217 544 T
(ch Reviews) 281.54 544 T
3 F
(. June 1975, pp. 21-23.) 335.2 544 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.14 ([4] Sutherland, I.E., and Oestreicher) 108 515 P
0.14 (, D. "How Big Should a Printed Circuit Board) 282.02 515 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Be?") 108 500 T
6 F
( IEEE T) 131.56 500 T
(ransactions of Computers) 172.56 500 T
3 F
(. V) 296.57 500 T
(ol. C22, May 1973, pp. 537-542.) 312.68 500 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.06 ([5] Sutherland, I.E. "A Method of Solving Arbitrary W) 108 471 B
0.3 0.06 (all Mazes by Computers.") 376.93 471 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
6 F
0.3 0.13 (IEEE T) 108 456 B
0.3 0.13 (ransactions on Computers) 144.09 456 B
3 F
0.3 0.13 (. V) 274.52 456 B
0.3 0.13 (ol. C18, No. 12, December 1969, pp. 1092-) 288.33 456 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(1097.) 108 441 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.19 ([6] Myer) 108 412 P
0.19 (, T) 150.7 412 P
0.19 (.H., and Sutherland, I.E. "On the Design of Display Processors.") 163.33 412 P
6 F
0.19 (Com-) 477.34 412 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(munications of the ACM.) 108 397 T
3 F
( June 1968, V) 228 397 T
(ol. 1) 296.11 397 T
(1, No. 6, pp. 410-414.) 317 397 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.01 ([7] Sutherland, I.E. "Sketchpad\321A ManMachine Graphical Communication Sys-) 108 368 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (tem.") 108 353 B
6 F
0.3 0.07 (Pr) 140.99 353 B
0.3 0.07 (oceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Confer) 152.69 353 B
0.3 0.07 (ence, Detr) 384.57 353 B
0.3 0.07 (oit) 435.11 353 B
3 F
0.3 0.07 (, Michigan) 447.99 353 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
504.07 351.69 501 351.69 2 L
V
0.59 H
0 Z
N
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.07 (.) 501 353 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(May 1963, and) 108 338 T
6 F
(MIT Lincoln Laboratory T) 183.32 338 T
(echnical Report #296) 309.9 338 T
3 F
(, January 1963.) 413.22 338 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.05 ([8] Sutherland, I.E. "Asynchronous First-In-First-Out Register Structure." United) 108 309 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(States Patent 4,837,740, June 6, 1989.) 108 294 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.24 ([9] Sutherland, I.E. "Reaction Control V) 108 265 B
0.3 0.24 (alve." United States Patent 4,622,992.) 311.83 265 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(November 18, 1986.) 108 250 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.15 ([10] Gouraud, H. "Computer Display of Curved Surfaces." University of Utah,) 108 221 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(UTEC-CSc-71-1) 108 206 T
(13. June 1971, and in) 188.88 206 T
6 F
(IEEE T) 297.54 206 T
(ransactions) 332.54 206 T
3 F
( C-20, 623, June 1971.) 388.55 206 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.17 ([1) 108 177 B
0.3 0.17 (1] Phong, B.T) 117.89 177 B
0.3 0.17 (. "Illumination for Computer) 187.79 177 B
0.3 0.17 (-generated Images.") 331.39 177 B
0.3 0.17 ( University of) 434.55 177 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Utah, UTEC-CSc-73-129, July 1973, and in) 108 162 T
6 F
(CACM,) 322.32 162 T
3 F
( 18\0506\051:31) 358.66 162 T
(1:317, June 1975.) 402.54 162 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
([12] May) 108 133 T
(, Rollo.) 152.21 133 T
6 F
(The Courage to Cr) 190.88 133 T
(eate) 281.45 133 T
3 F
(. Bantam Books, New Y) 301.44 133 T
(ork, 1975.) 420.56 133 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "32" 32
%%Page: "33" 33
612 792 0 FMBEGINPAGE
[0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 0 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5]
[ 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0]
[ 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5]
[ 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0]
[ 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0]
[ 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5]
[ 0 0 0 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75]
[ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0]
[ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0]
[ 1 0 1 0 0 1 0]
[ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1]
[ 1 0 0 0 0 1 1]
[ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1]
[ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0]
15 FrameSetSepColors
FrameNoSep
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
3 12 Q
0 X
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(33) 300 37 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
-0.03 ([13] Sutherland, I.E. and Sproull, R. "Comparison for Codebook Generation T) 108 676 P
-0.03 (ech-) 483.35 676 P
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(niques for V) 108 661 T
(ector Quantization.") 166.66 661 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.02 ([14] Sutherland, I. E. and Sproull, R. "Logical Ef) 108 632 B
0.3 0.02 (fort. Designing for Speed on the) 347.17 632 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.28 (Back of an Envelope,") 108 617 B
6 F
0.3 0.28 (IEEE Advanced Resear) 226.5 617 B
0.3 0.28 (ch in VLSI) 344.83 617 B
3 F
0.3 0.28 (, C. Sequin, ed.) 398.87 617 B
0.3 0.28 (MIT) 481.45 617 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Press, 1991.) 108 602 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.09 ([15] Sutherland, I.E. "T) 108 573 B
0.3 0.09 (echnology and Courage,") 223.69 573 B
6 F
0.3 0.09 (CMU Compter Science. A 25th) 351.56 573 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0.3 0.04 (Anniversary Commemorative) 108 558 B
3 F
0.3 0.04 (. Ed. Rashid, R. ACM Press, 1991.) 250.23 558 B
6 F
0.3 0.04 (T) 427.31 558 B
0.3 0.04 (echnology and) 432.92 558 B
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
(Courage) 108 543 T
3 F
( is also available on the W) 150 543 T
(orld W) 275.69 543 T
(ide W) 308.87 543 T
(eb.) 336.9 543 T
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 K
FMENDPAGE
%%EndPage: "33" 33
%%Trailer
%%BoundingBox: 0 0 612 792
%%PageOrder: Ascend
%%Pages: 33
%%DocumentFonts: Helvetica
%%+ LucidaBright-DemiItalic
%%+ LucidaBright-Italic
%%+ Times-Roman
%%+ LucidaBright-Demi
%%+ LucidaBright
%%+ Times-Italic
%%+ Helvetica-Bold
%%EOF