S.W. Erdnase and W.E. Sanders — Linguistic Analysis

By Bob Coyne — This document is a work-in-progress. Last update: March 22, 2019



W.E. Sanders            W.E. Sanders




Abstract

Who wrote The Expert at the Card Table? This document compiles and organizes over 200 linguistically and thematically similar examples extracted from the writings of S.W. Erdnase and W.E. Sanders. These correspondences add additional weight to the hypothesis that Sanders wrote The Expert at the Card Table under the pseudonym (and anagram) of S.W. Erdnase. A brief summary of the other sources of evidence behind the case for Sanders as the author is also presented. In addition, a set of highlights is provided as a way to quickly see some of the most salient examples.

Introduction

The Expert at the Card Table by S.W. Erdnase, published in 1902, has been the most influential book ever written on sleight of hand with cards. The techniques taught were revolutionary and inspired card sharks and magicians for over a century. But the appeal of the book was always more than just the actual sleights. It was elegantly written and revealed wisdom and deeper secrets to those who read it closely and repeatedly— to those who studied it. For example, Dai Vernon, the most prominent close-up magician in modern times, revered Erdnase and often quoted his line: "The resourceful professional failing to improve the method changes the moment."

Just as the book doesn't give up all its secrets easily, this is also true of the author, who has remained a mystery ever since the book's publication. In 1999, David Alexander and Richard Kyle in a brilliant bit of intuition, abductive reasoning, and legwork proposed a new candidate, one who fit the characteristics of whom Erdnase must be. That candidate was Wilbur Edgerton Sanders, a mining engineer, born in 1861 and educated at the Columbia University School of Mines. Sanders was the son of Wilbur Fisk Sanders, the first Senator of Montana and had every reason to keep his identity hidden. He hid it through a clever double anagram, S.W. Erdnase.

After coming up with the candidate, a good deal of circumstantial evidence was uncovered, first by David Alexander and later by Marty Demarest. The evidence fell into place like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, substantiating and augmenting the profile that Alexander and Kyle had originally constructed for the author. The following are the main points that help establish Sanders as the likely author of the book.

Anagram: Sanders, like Erdnase, was clearly fascinated with many different aspects of language. His writings include the deliberate use of vernacular speech patterns, foreign terms, alliteration, puns, and other wordplay. And he even provides an etymological analysis of the name "Montana". He was also very inventive, having been granted two patents and written technical articles on mining engineering. These elements of his background help explain the genesis of his pseudonym, a double anagram of his own name, which spells S.W. Erdnase forwards and a second anagram (E.S. Andrews) backwards. Not only that, but "Erdnase" itself means "earth nose" in German, which is an apt description for Sanders' profession of mining engineer. The relatively obvious reversed name served to misdirect away from his actual name, allowing Sanders to cleverly and safely "assert" his authorship of the book. And it was effective— it led to a 100 year wild goose chase of trying to track down an E.S. Andrews before David Alexander and Richard Kyle discovered the ruse. It was, to re-quote Erdnase, "the most subtle and ingenious pseudonym ever devised."

As mentioned above, the pseudonym "Erdnase" means "earth nose" in German. Like most engineers of the day, Sanders knew German— he had studied it both before and during college. He also incorporated a German phrase "aber nit" ("but not") into one of his poems.

In addition to the anagram itself, it has been noted that embedded within the book's subtitle "Artifice RUSE AND Subterfuge" is the name "Andrews" ("AND RUSE") phonetically permuted into "RUSE AND." While not essential to the unpacking of the mystery, this is an additional clue signaling that the obvious backwards spelling of "E.S. Andrews" was perhaps a ruse, artifice, or subterfuge itself. We describe below how Sanders, in one of his poems, performed a similar phonetic shuffling on the name of one of his college classmates.

Sanders' early diaries and notebooks reinforce the anagram theory and provide perhaps the most striking piece of evidence in his favor. They contain examples of partial anagrams and rearrangements of the letters in his own name. For example, on one page he rearranges the letters in his name to spell out "WandersS." And apparently his predilection for thinking of names in terms of their constituent letters extended well into his adulthood.

In published correspondence from 1896 (while he was at the Historical Society of Montana and only a few years before he unveiled the anagram S.W. Erdnase), Sanders writes about the soon-to-be-adopted name for his home state of Montana: "It is a short, sightly, and simple name, and one of much euphonic beauty; one which the people of this state would not care to part with for any possible COMBINATION OF LETTERS." [L-1896] It should be noted, however, that a similar characterization had already been used by members of Congress who criticized the proposed name as "a mere conglomeration of letters constituting no word." [The Columbus journal., June 19, 1889]

Additionally, in a footnote about Captin William Clark(e) to an article published by the Historical Society of Montana, Sanders discusses the varied spelling of Clark's name (with and without the "e") and declares that "A similar mutation in the spelling of names is illustrated in many other instances beside this." This is yet another example of Sanders' strong and recurrent interest in names and letter combinations. And it perhaps also hints that among the many other INSTANCES is the MUTATION from "WE Sanders" to "ES Andrews" to "SW Erdnase."

It's also interesting to speculate about another possible spelling-related clue. In Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana Volume 2, Sanders included an errata correcting a spelling mistake, in text he had written, where incognita in terra incognita was misspelled incognito. This could just be a printer's error. But it could also be a Freudian slip, revealing that Sanders operated incognito under pseudonyms (e.g. Erdnase and/or Andrews) in order to hide his true identity. If so, Sanders tellingly makes this error while describing a "venturesome life" where the "chiefest delight" is in "overcoming dangers," a close parallel to Erdnase's description of a gambler's "delight" in "making the hazard."

See appendix below for a list of other authors who have used pen names based on an anagram or reversal of their actual name.

Magic and Gambling links: There is quite a bit of evidence linking Sanders to both gambling and magic. In particular:

Writing ability: A well-educated, polished, published writer. Capable of writing at the level of Erdnase.

Writing style: Uncanny linguistic similarity with Erdnase. This includes word choice, idioms, syntactic/semantic patterns, metaphors, and underlying themes. In addition both writers make frequent and effective use of colloquial language/dialects, parenthetical question marks, puns, and scare quotes. In one instance they both make a pun pivoting on the same word: "shift". Aside from the many linguistic and thematic matches in their writing, the same personality and "voice" shines through. And just as Erdnase adopts different styles within Expert at the Card Tablle (EATCT), so does Sanders range through those same styles in his various writings, from precise/analytical (e.g. the descriptions of the sleights) to humorous/ironic (e.g. parts of the introduction) to grandiloquent/oratorical (eg the patter in the Card Tricks).

Topical overlap: Similarity in the themes/patter of Erdnase's first two and most distinctive tricks "Exclusive Coterie" and "The Divining Rod" to Sanders' background in private salons/clubs and as a mining engineer and his duties as Librarian for the Historical Society of Montana in preserving ancient artifacts and cultures.

Etymology is another shared interest. In their writings, both Erdnase and Sanders go out of their way to describe the derivation and meaning of names and terminology. Sanders does this extensively in his article on Montana [MHS-vol7], in his mining articles, and facetiously in his Columbia class reunion writings. Erdnase touches on this topic several times: he explicitly mentions the derivation of the term "cold deck" and the misnomer "back palm;" and he explains the names he gave to a couple of his own sleights (Longitudinal Shift and S.W.E. Shift).

Motive: A strong reason for a pseudonym (his father was a US Senator) and evidence in other ways of hiding aspects of his identity: pages torn from diary; references to his "other life."

Personal characteristics: The book's illustrator, Marshall Smith, was tracked down and interviewed in the mid 1940s by the magician and popular math and puzzle columnist Martin Gardner. While it was several decades since he had met Erdnase to do the drawings, Smith was able to remember some details. Sanders provides a good match with most of Marshall Smith's recollections.

Smith recalled that the author had "a name with a W." This matches the initial W in Wilbur Sanders.

Physically, Smith described Erdnase as being of slight build and between 5'5 and 5'7, while Sanders at age 20 was 5'8 and weighed 130 lbs. Smith, himself, was a tall man, probably at least 6' and remembered looking down at Sanders. People tend to categorize people's heights in bins, and aren't particularly accurate when the height is different than their own. So it is easy to imagine Smith's 45 year old recollection being in the right direction (significantly smaller than himself) but off by an inch or two.

Smith also estimated that Erdnase was about 40 years old, which exactly matches Sanders' age at the time. According to Smith, Erdnase seemed to be unmarried and not from Chicago (where the illustrations were done and the book was printed) — both aspects matching Sanders. And significantly, Smith mentioned Erdnase's extremely polite, gentlemanly, and refined manner; and that he was good looking and well-dressed. These qualities all apply to Sanders' upper class background and education; and are reflected in the quality/polish of his writing and what we can observe in photos.

Erdnase mentioned to Smith that he had a family connection to the well known cartoonist Louis Dalrymple. According to Marty Demarest's research [Montana Magazine of Western History Winter 2013], the Dalrymple and Sanders families had been related since the late eighteenth centuries. And Dalrymple had also likely caricatured Wilbur Fisk Sanders, in one of his cartoons, as the face of Montana.

In one aspect, Sanders doesn't seem to match Smith's recollections of Erdnase, whom he described as being "blondish" and not having dark hair or eyes. However, one can infer, from Sander's humorous self-description in his Columbia class reunion bio, that he had a fair complexion with reddish hair and freckled face. (He air young an' beautifullest an' fair; he hez carroty face an' a freckled hair.) One can imagine a fair complexion with reddish hair as being conflated with being blondish after the passage of 45 years.

Publishing experience: Erdnase self-published EATCT. Sanders had knowledge and experience with publishing, both as clerk for his father in the US Senate, and later as Librarian at the Historical Society of Montana. He understood the limitations/problems involved in the mechanical process of getting something out, and described (in a letter) the process with respect to his Montana publication: "The mechanical part of the work leaves much to be desired, but it is something to have gotten out the work, so that we can afford to overlook such an item as that."

Misspellings:

This document is focused on the respective writing of Erdnase and Sanders. It presents excerpts that illustrate side-by-side the many similarities in the language they use. As David Alexander pointed out, this involves not just common linguistic patterns but also the underlying personality and modes of thought that shine through— the overall writing voice and related thematic concerns. One finds in both men a strong attention to detail and an appeal to precision and rigor (with frequent use of logic-oriented terms like "axiom," "rule", and "invariably" as well as technical terms like "longitudinal" and "jog"). Sanders was a professional engineer, and the writing reflects that mode of thinking.

Likewise, the writings of both manifest a healthy ego, proud of what they've achieved. Neither is shy about claiming superiority of their systems over others ("vastly superior", "far in advance of"). In addition, both frequently adopt an ironic tone, and take delight in pointing out hypocrisy and pretense, as they sarcastically rail against so-called "professionals" and their ruses and deceptions. And both employ a similar self-deprecating humor when describing themselves: in Erdnase's "insufferable conceit" and Sanders' "yer braggin' yet".

Erdnase and Sanders both take great pleasure in the nuances of language and use it in a very creative manner. Hence the heavy use of "scare quotes", parenthetical (?) punctuation, colloquial speech and accents ("langwidge", "Get yo' own han' "), alliteration ("wiles and wickedness", "wicked waste"), etc. And topic-wise, they sometimes even cross into each other's domain, with Erdnase invoking mining for patter ("metals as gold, silver, or copper...prospected area") and Sanders touching on gambling themes ("Make simple faro, poker plays...").

In addition to the actual content of the book, Erdnase's facility with language and the clarity with which he expresses his thoughts make him stand out among magic authors of his and any other time. Sanders' writings show the same attributes and qualities, but applied to a wider range of topics. There's much stylistic and topical variety among the following: his mining articles (which share Erdnase's great clarity and attention to detail); his Columbia class reunion writing (in which he shines as a humorist in both his prose and poetry, while often presenting a more valedictory voice as well); and his Montana historical and linguistics studies (which present a leisurely and scholarly tone). It's very easy to imagine Expert at the Card Table as a Sanders treatment of yet another specialized domain, that of card table artifice, where these various stylistic strains combine into the voice we know as Erdnase.

The over 200 examples below are intended to show the two (?) writers' significant shared linguistic patterns AND a common voice, personality, and thematic concerns. For example, while the use of a word like "utmost" doesn't imply much linguistically on its own, the large number of such references (along with related words such as "perfect," "excellent" etc) indicates a persistent concern with excellence and high standards. In both writers, there is almost a reverence for perfection and the artistic heights that accompany it.




Organization

Prev Next    Index Highlights

The extracts and correspondences below are grouped into different sections according to a set of common topics, themes, and modes of expression that help characterize the writer's voice. Three common themes, of particular concern to both Sanders and Erdnase, are highlighted in their own sections.

Rigor and precision (section 3) — Thinking like an engineer, using words like: requirements, axioms, rules,...
Excellence (section 4) — A high regard for excellence in all forms (e.g. aesthetics, methods, and education).
Methods and practicality (section 5) — Also thinking like an engineer, with a concern for process, systems, and methods.

Sometimes a correspondence would fit in more than once section. In these cases, it is included in its most specific section, and a reference to the second theme is made in the heading. Also, a small number of examples are labeled as [thematic] when they lack linguistic distinctiveness, but they help establish the strong and persistent themes being expressed in the given section.

In addition to the theme-oriented sections mentioned above, there are sections for other more topical or stylistic similarities. Section 1 gives examples where both writers apply a humorous, mocking, or satirical tone to the foibles of human nature, or where they employ similar metaphors. Section 2 compiles similarities in how the two writers describe the written work itself. Section 6 shows examples of crossover topics — where Erdnase writes about mining and archaeology (one of Sanders' interests) and Sanders writes about gambling. Sections 7-8 contain examples that are neutral with respect to theme or topic but still exhibit distinctive linguistic constructs and word choices. Section 9 shows a variety of examples of wordplay such as puns, colloquialisms, foreign terms, etc. Section 10 presents numeric counts of many shared thematic terms. We conclude and also discuss some avenues for future investigation.

An appendix includes a couple longer annotated examples: a) Sanders' 1906 letter to Mining and Scientific press that illustrates, in a single short text, many Erdnasean characteristics; and b), a paragraph from Erdnase annotated with corresponding excerpts from Sanders. The appendix also includes a list of words that demonstrate Sander's well-developed vocabulary and a selection from the many literary allusions found in his writing. A final appendix section is devoted to estimating Sanders' height as depicted in his class photo.

A HIGHLIGHTS section is provided as a way to quickly see some of the most salient examples.

Notation: In general, if thematic or other linguistic attributes are indicated at the top of a section, they are intended to apply to all examples in that section. Additional attributes are sometimes mentioned above the individual excerpt (for example, if an example fits more than one theme). About one third of the examples are highlighted with red asterisks (****). These are cases that seem particularly worth noting or otherwise more relevant than others. They are generally near the top of each section and can be read first to get a sense of the most salient examples before examining the rest. An even smaller set of examples have an additional red (H) next to them. These are also collected together in the Highlights appendix. Also, within each example, a few less fully corresponding, but closely related variants, are sometimes included. These are usually separated from the main pairings by a blank line.

References: Sanders' excerpts are taken from the following sources (most available online). The source is not generally indicated with the individual excerpts except to differentiate between the different parts of the Columbia Reunion text. Sanders references are also sometimes given when the source seems worth noting in some other way. There are no page numbers currently given for Sanders' excerpts. For Erdnase, however, the page number is always indicated (for the Charles T Powner 1975 edition). Thanks to Bill Mullins for providing the references to some of the sources below.

Articles and resources on Erdnase and Sanders:

Some of the cited examples were first pointed out by others in the articles above or the Genii Forum (in particular David Alexander, Marty Demarest, Bill Mullins, Leonard Hevia). I make note of that if/when I'm aware of it. Also some were gleaned from Carlo Morpurgo's list of common word patterns between EATCT and Mine Timbering, extracted automatically by software.




1) Psychology, humor, metaphor, and rhetoric

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

Many of these examples show insight into human psychology and take an [ironic] point of view.

****(H) PROFESSIONALS --- EXHUME/BURIAL metaphor --- wiles/wicked/waste alliteration [irony] ----

Erdnase and Sanders both take delight in pointing out hypocrisy. In this example, they sarcastically mock the pretensions of so-called "professionals" using the same metaphor (EXHUMING) and almost identical alliteration (Wicked, Wiles, Waste).

Erdnase: Self-styled "ex-professionals" have regaled the public with astounding disclosures of their former wiles and wickedness, and have proven a wonderful knowledge of the subject by exhuming some antiquated moss-covered ruses [p13]

Sanders: certainly in part it is too good to keep, and in a spirit of benevolence and as an offering upon the shrine of professional goodwill toward professional brethren, the following extracts have been exhumed from their obscure place of burial [...] and how many reports presuming to describe mining properties are written that should never have been penned - because of the wicked waste of ink resulting therefrom. [ML1913]

****(H) ---- self-styled "professionals" vs self-constituted "historians" [irony] ----

In this example, Erdnase's same self-styled "ex-professionals" (as above) corresponds to yet another passage in Sanders, where he criticizes self-constituted "historians". Both phrases mock their targets using almost identical hyphenated adjectives sharing the same lead word (SELF-styled vs SELF-constituted). And both groups ("ex-professionals" and "historians") are encased in scare quotes to amplify the sarcastic tone. The parallels extend much further as described below.

In both passages, a set of CULPRITS (shameless professionals/historians) have hoodwinked their VICTIMS (public) with (old, subpar) GOODS in an aggressive/crude and deceptive MANNER.

Erdnase: Self-styled "ex-professionals" have regaled the public with astounding disclosures of their former wiles and wickedness, and have proven a wonderful knowledge of the subject by exhuming some antiquated moss-covered ruses as well known as nursery rhymes, and even these extraordinary revelations are calmly dismissed with the assertion that this or that artifice is employed; in nowise attempting to explain the process or give the detail of the action mentioned. If terrific denunciation of erstwhile associates, and a diatribe on the awful consequences of gambling are a criterion of ability, these purified prodigals must have been very dangerous companions at the card table. [p13]

Sanders: That unblushing visigoth, the literary huckster with his second-hand wares, has broken in upon our sleeplessness, jarred coarsely on our sensibilities, usurped without invitation or consent the most responsible and solemn position which our civilization has created and in which every citizen has an interest, and has palmed off upon us our own alleged history. These literary commercial travelers seize extant information without reference to its reliability to give currency to wares of unimportant or apocryphal quality [...] His mission is fulfilled when he tumbles into one kaleideoscopic mass what has been said, without reference to what has occurred. Such is our self-constituted "historian" and of such quality is his alleged "History." [mhs-vol2 intro]

Also note the similarity between Sanders' description of "sensibilities" and a different passage, elsewhere in Erdnase, where sensibilities are also being coarsely and almost physically offended.

Sanders: JARRED COARSELY on our SENSIBILITIES [in Intro above]
Erdnase: BRUTALLY taken advantage of...EXTREMELY GALLING to their aristocratic SENSIBILITIES. [p173-174 Exclusive Coterie]

Note: The Sanders passage comes from the Introduction to Contributions to Historical Society of Montana, Vol 2, which Sanders compiled and edited. The Introduction is unattributed, but a set of correspondences between the Introduction and Sanders' other writings are detailed here.

****(H) ---- acquiring WISDOM in bulk when younger [knowledge] ----

Both writers characterize the large quantities of worldly knowledge (wisdom) which they acquired in their younger days.

Erdnase: We naturally began to imbibe WISDOM in COPIOUS DRAUGHTS at the customary sucker rates. ...and the sum of our PRESENT KNOWLEDGE is proffered in this volume [p14]

Sanders: We did a lot of hustlin' then and gained a HEAP OF KNOWLEDGE and picked VAST WISDOM UP IN CHUNKS in MANY VARIOUS LINES. [CR poem]

****(H) ---- something "too good" to not be indulged in. ----

Erdnase: A self-satisfied unlicked cub with a fairly fat bank roll was TOO GOOD A THING TO BE PASSED UP. [p14]
Sanders: and the joke, TOO GOOD TO BE PERMITTED TO DIE EARLY [CR bio]
Sanders: Certainly in part it is TOO GOOD TO KEEP, and in a spirit of benevolence ....

---- other "TOO XX TO YY" examples ----
Erdnase: some of us are TOO TIMID TO risk a dollar [p9]
Sanders: those dear bygone times were TOO JOYOUS TO last [CR poem]
Sanders: whereby hangs a tale which Sanders says is TOO LONG AND BOLD TO relate here [CR bio]

**** ---- idiom for the need for money as a prerequisite ----

Erdnase: but one reservation, — THAT HE HAS THE PRICE. [p18]
Sanders: he asserts he is still able to eat three large meals per day — "WHEN I HAVE THE CASH"! [CR bio]

[pointed out by Marty Demarest]

****(H) ---- deferring telling a story/tale/letter (for unstated reasons) ----

In this example, the writers have something very interesting to tell. But they refrain from fully revealing it, possibly for dramatic effect, or because it would be embarrassing or self-incriminating.

Erdnase: the back palm once helped us out of a difficult situation BUT THAT IS ANOTHER STORY. [p147]
Sanders: whereby hangs a TALE which Sanders says is TOO LONG AND BOLD TO RELATE HERE [CR bio]
Sanders: More of the LETTER might be given, BUT I REFRAIN. [CR bio]

Sanders has others of this sort where he sets the stage but then pulls back.

Sanders: We see him (and another WHO SHALL BE NAMELESS) at a semi-annual examination, interviewing two unwashed Italian organ grinders [CR bio]
Sanders: Hollis has always accused the scribe of flirting with the waitress or the cook or somebody; but since he did not bring all of the proofs and records back from that journey into the unknown, the same is not proven, and though the flirting is barely possible, IT MAY NOT HAVE HAPPENED. [CR bio]

****(H) ---- "make good" [idiomatic. Scare quotes] ----

Erdnase and Sanders both use scare quotes extensively to signal ironic or some other non-standard sense. In this instance they both use scare quotes on the same short phrase. It's also worth noting that "make good" has a connotation related to paying debts. Sanders is known to received letters related to gambling debts.

Erdnase: he coolly proposes to "MAKE GOOD" by transforming the wrong card [p151]
Sanders: Has "MADE GOOD" at the bar, where he shines [CR poem]
Sanders: But in his work he's long MADE GOOD [CR poem]

****(H) ---- Boasting. Vanity. Insufferable conceit. Bragging. ----

[updated 9/2018]

Erdnase and Sanders both refer to the psychology behind vanity and boasting.

Erdnase: Excessive VANITY proves the undoing of many experts. ... It requires the philosophy of the stoic to possess any great superiority and refrain from BOASTING to friend or foe. [p23]
Sanders: Not given to VAIN BOASTINGS was he, and we learned but little of his life's history [CR bio]

And more significantly, they confess to this personality flaw themselves. Erdnase admits to being "self-satisfied" and to his "insufferable conceit." And Sanders mocks himself as "braggin' yet." Like Erdnase, he can see right through his own pretense, admonishing himself "you can't fool me." In a second instance, he contrasts conceit ("vain boastings") with true "high and reckless courage." And in a third instance, he idealizes the benefits of true courage and its effect on the heart. So rather than Erdnase's "heartrending jolts," the truly brave man would reap "heart-satisfying rewards."

Erdnase: OVERWEENING FAITH in our own potency. We BUCKED THE TIGER voluntarily, and censure no one for the inevitable result. A SELF-SATISFIED unlicked cub with a fairly fat bank roll ... but the jars to our pocketbook caused far less anguish than the HEARTRENDING JOLTS to our INSUFFERABLE CONCEIT [p14]

Sanders: [mocking] to hear him talk of the pace he's set; an' of what he's done, for HE'S BRAGGIN' YET; ... but I know you, Bill, an' you can't fool me!

Sanders: [contrasting] not given to VAIN BOASTINGS....that high and reckless COURAGE

Sanders: [idealizing] HEART-SATISFYING REWARDS that can come to "a BRAVE MAN struggling in the storms of fate,"

They also both make a point of highlighting the modesty in their own or others' claims/assertions.

Erdnase: We MODESTLY CLAIM originality for the particular manner of accomplishing ... [p13-14]
Sanders: He now MODESTLY ASSERTS that he wears "only an upper-lip adornment," [CR bio]
Sanders: And we all know full well how necessary the work is, whatever, in OUR MODESTY, we may state as to the possession of brains. [CR bio]

****(H) ---- FLASH ----

In this example a simple word choice reveals a larger metaphor and similar patterns of thought.

Erdnase: made like a FLASH [p134]
Erdnase: in a FLASH [p92]
Sanders: humour would FLASH and beam in him as FLASH the lightnings

In addition to the word choice itself, there is something very interesting about FLASH. Erdnase uses the word six times to describe the speed of certain sleights being performed; and in three of those he mentions the absence of sound. In one case, however, he characterizes that missing sound as a "snap and crack," clearly of lightning.

Erdnase: The shift can be MADE LIKE A FLASH, and with the cards in perfect order. When executed perfectly, the ONLY SOUND is the slipping of one packet over the other. There is NO SNAP OR CRACK, and it is in every way worthy of the practice necessary to acquire it. [p134]

Significantly, when Sanders uses the term FLASH, he mentions lightning explicitly and even invokes the way lightning forms on a warm midsummer day. The metaphorical FLASH has become literal.

Sanders: enjoyed the added WARMTH UPON A MIDSUMMER DAY, ... mirth and humor would FLASH and beam in him as FLASH the LIGHTNINGS of his beloved Physics.

It could be argued that the sound of a shift is as important an aspect as the speed, and hence we would expect a description of its sound . While this is true, it would be unusual to characterize the sound of a shift as a "snap or crack" independently of the flash of lightning metaphor. In both texts, the author uses the term "flash" figuratively but augments the metaphor by connecting it to its literal roots.

And then, in a pair of consecutive paragraphs, Erdnase ties the bow by directly stating the metaphor.

Erdnase: The actual palming can be done IN A FLASH, and as we have said, the only objections are the necessary manoeuvers to obtain the position in a natural and easy manner. [...] In the second part of this book will be found, under the caption Changes, several methods of palming which are LIGHTNING-LIKE in rapidity but are more applicable to card conjuring than card playing. [p92-93]

To summarize: in this example, both writers are using the term FLASH metaphorically, to signify something happening QUICKLY and SUDDENLY. But in doing so, they are thinking (consciously or unconsciously) in terms of the metaphorical roots (LIGHTNING) from which it is derived, even in cases where lightning is not mentioned. This is a deeper and more significant similarity than a mere word choice— it is a sign of a similar thought process underlying that choice.

[Matching words "flash" noticed by Leonard Hevia]

---- target shooting ----

The image of literally shooting at target is employed by both writers. In the first set of cases (below), it is also used as a metaphor to make a point.

Erdnase: Proficiency in TARGET practice is not the sole qualification of the TRAP SHOOTER. Many experts with the gun who can nonchalantly RING UP THE BULL'S EYE in a SHOOTING GALLERY could not hit the side of a barn in a DUEL. The greater the emergency, or the greater the stakes, the greater the nerve required. [p22-23]
Erdnase: two or three coups in the course of an evening will not FLUSH THE QUARRY [p19]
Sanders: Some characteristic of one's classmate is usually made a peg upon which to hang, or a TARGET for some SHAFT if one sharp enough to tickle can be found in the QUIVER [CR bio]

In the following case Sanders refers to a target and weapon in a purely literal (though humorous) manner.

Sanders: tremendously big SHOT-GUN or BLUNDERBUSS was turned loose at us at short range which luckily or unluckily missed a hoped-for TARGET [CR bio]

---- so-called ----

Another example of both men poking fun at pretense and inflated status.

Erdnase: We have neither grievance against the fraternity nor sympathy for SO-CALLED victims. [p10]
Sanders: in the SO-CALLED lunch room

---- universal/popular beliefs (being wrong!)

[added 2/2019]

Both Erdnase and Sanders enjoyed poking holes in popular beliefs.

Erdnase: the almost UNIVERSAL BELIEF that none but the unsophisticated can be deceived by "blind" shuffling. ... The player WHO BELIEVES he cannot be deceived is IN GREAT DANGER.
Sanders: this POPULAR BELIEF that the finding of the nugget at Sutter's Fort marked the discovery of gold in California is undoubtedly a MISTAKEN ONE.

---- sole/chiefest delight in {making the hazard | overcoming danger ... venturesome }

[added 2/2019]

Both show psychological insight into the supreme DELIGHT in succeeding in taking risks

Erdnase: Winning is not his SOLE DELIGHT. Some one has remarked that there is but one pleasure in life greater than winning, that is, in MAKING THE HAZARD. [p9]
Sanders: found its CHIEFEST DELIGHT in OVERCOMING THE DANGERS ... incident to the VENTURESOME life [MHS-vol2 footnote]

---- rhetorical scheme of litany of opposites (in context of an educational goal) ----

In this example, both writers use similar rhetorical devices to structure their expressions.

Erdnase: After the AWAKENING OUR EDUCATION progressed through close application and constant study of the game, and the sum of our present knowledge is proffered in this volume, for any purpose it may answer, TO FRIEND AND FOE, TO THE WISE AND THE FOOLISH, TO THE GOOD AND THE BAD, TO ALL ALIKE, with but one reservation, that he has the price. [p14]

Sanders: And thus FOR GOOD OR ILL, FOR BETTER OR FOR WORSE, FOR AFFAIRS GREAT AND AFFAIRS SMALL, our "class of '85" was organized and launched as an integral and concrete fact in the existence of what is now COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY in the City of New York.

[updated (below) 11/2018]

---- other litanies ----
Erdnase: IT MAY caution the unwary... and IT MAY inspire the crafty... IT MAY demonstrate to the tyro... and IT MAY enabled the skilled [p3]
Erdnase: BUT it will not make the innocent vicious, OR transform the pastime player into a professional; OR make the fool wise, OR curtail the annual crop of suckers; BUT whatever the result may be, if it sells it will accomplish the primary motive of the author, as he needs the money. [p3]
Erdnase: THE slightest action that appears irregular, THE least effort to distract attention, OR THE first unnatural movement, will create suspicion [p11]
Sanders: Some, and in fact the larger number of our Mining Engineers, have forsaken THE gay and humdrum, THE exhilarating and precarious, THE usually unsettled and usually hard and disagreeable BUT always the fascinating existence of the honest miner and the princely smelterman, and have become TRADERS on the exchange, TRAVELERS at large, BANKERS in Wall Street, EDUCATORS and planters, AND what not, and here, in our friend Bemis, we find one who, in the Life Insurance business, is laying up vast treasures on earth. [CR bio]
Sanders: the society MAKES NO PRETENCE of publishing a connected account of the series of events that have taken place relative to the history of Montana both before and since its organization as a Territory, NOR yet beyond a certain point, as to its correctness, is an attempt made to weigh and sift what has been gathered, NOR do we draw conclusions as to the relative importance of the events narrated, OR follow out in them the relation between cause and effect. [MHS-lib]
Sanders: A quiet, agreeable and kindly chap, direct in his ways, determined in his manner, even-tempered, well set up but not tall, studious and standing high in his studies and friendships, one who held a very high place in the esteem of his classmates ... [CR bio]

----shorter litanies ----
Erdnase: quite OPENLY, CARELESSLY and WITHOUT HASTE [p110]
Erdnase: and as a rule is GENEROUS, CARELESS and IMPROVIDENT. [p10]
Sanders: FIRST protestingly, THEN insistently, AND FINALLY angrily, he insisted upon a return of the missing article, [CR bio]
Sanders: This was probably the one time in his cheery life when the GENIAL, the COMPANIONABLE, the JOLLY and KINDLY Page quite drifted away from his temper.
Sanders: and so knead AND mold AND fashion AND influence AND instruct them
take them as raw material and so knead AND mold AND fashion AND influence AND instruct them
NONE SO villainous, NONE SO lost to decency, NONE SO degenerated [CR bio]

☛ See also parallelisms





2) The author on his work

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

This section is bound by common topic. Both authors describe the work being presented in very similar ways, often touching on the themes of [excellence], [rigor/precision], and [methods] (e.g. instructing on the best method for reading)

****(H) ---- subject/method is FOREIGN TO the purpose/subject but (cursory review / touched upon)

Erdnase: The SUBJECT of prepared cards is almost as FOREIGN TO the MAIN PURPOSE OF THIS WORK as the preceding one of hold outs, but a CURSORY REVIEW of the commoner kinds and their uses may not be out of place. [p15]

Sanders: Nor is it intended to EXPLAIN METHODS technically FOREIGN TO the SUBJECT, although such will be TOUCHED UPON.

****(H) ---- encourage reader to "PERUSE" a particular section of the work to aid understanding---

Erdnase: A CAREFUL PERUSAL OF THE FOLLOWING definitions will save much time and perplexity in COMPREHENDING the processes described [p25]

Sanders: A PERUSAL OF THE FOLLOWING excerpts from the text will CONVINCE any fair minded unbiased mining engineer (ML)

****(H) ---- certain terms/symbols ... for the SAKE OF BREVITY ... designate / describing ----

Erdnase: we have, in DESCRIBING the various processes and conditions, used CERTAIN TERMS for the SAKE OF BREVITY, to DESIGNATE the particular matters referred to. [p25]

Sanders: for the SAKE OF BREVITY in DESCRIPTION, CERTAIN SYMBOLS letters or figures, are employed to DESIGNATE the various mine workings, as follows: [RFMW]
Sanders: they are thus marked, CERTAIN SYMBOLS may be discarded for the SAKE OF BREVITY, and only such as are essential to the DESCRIPTION of the working be employed. [MT]

**** ---- writer/publisher uses no sophistry/pretense in presenting this work ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: the writer USES NO SOPHISTRY as an excuse for its existence [p3]
Sanders: the society MAKES NO PRETENCE of publishing a connected account of the series [MHS-lib]

---- Others with pretense ----
Erdnase: PRETENSIONS of piety, are not foisted as a justification for imparting the knowledge it contains
Erdnase: Then he MAKES A PRETENSE of confusing the company by changing their places on the table. [p122]
Sanders: Beyond any PRETENSE of our ours the volume was commended by literary men of prominence [MHS-vol2]

☛ See also transitive no

**** ---- claiming the uniqueness of their book/document among others on the subject [excellence] -

Erdnase: Hence this work STANDS UNIQUE IN THE LIST OF CARD BOOKS. [p13]
Sanders: that it is UNIQUE AMONG MANY DOCUMENTS PERTAINING TO mines and mining situations (MT)
Sanders: a picturesque and UNIQUE DOCUMENT that is readable and fairly well filled... [ML1913]

**** ---- offering a treatise/narration and stressing the importance of completeness/details [precision] ----

Erdnase: A TREATISE on the Science and Art of Manipulating Cards [p1]
Erdnase: the SUM of our present knowledge is PROFFERED THIS IN VOLUME [p14]
Erdnase: IMPORTANCE of DETAILS -- The finished card expert considers NOTHING TOO TRIVIAL that in any way contributes to his success [p25]
Erdnase: The EXACT manner in which each artifice is performed is FULLY DESCRIBED IN MINUTIA. [p12]

Sanders: it has appeared worth while to make the present COLLECTION WHICH IS OFFERED not as a complete TREATISE on the subject, but rather as a series of essays which go fully into many IMPORTANT DETAILS (MT)
Sanders: the FACTS HERE NARRATED....I am compelled to rely upon memory which may not be EXACT as to SPECIFIC DETAILS and dates (MONT)
Sanders: IMPORTANT DETAILS connected with the methods of timbering HEREIN DESCRIBED, and other systems now in successful operation among the metal mines of this country, are excluded from this necessarily abridged article.

**** ---- it is not the purpose...Disclaimers on intentions/purpose/limitations of what is covered ----

Erdnase: IT IS NOT OUR PURPOSE TO DESCRIBE the various kinds of apparatus, or prepared or mechanical cards, that play so great a part in the professional conjurer's startling exhibitions. [p171]

Sanders: IT IS NOT THE PROVINCE OF THIS ARTICLE TO TOUCH UPON methods of mining in use above ground, whether by hydraulic mining, or other processes, but rather to deal with the support of underground excavations by the use of timbers, and the details of mining therewith connected. NOR IS IT INTENDED to ...

**** ---- the writer unable to find/learn/establish a fact (in field of [knowledge]) ----

Erdnase: yet WE have been UNABLE TO FIND in THE WHOLE CATEGORY more than an incidental reference... [p13]
Sanders: the WRITER has been UNABLE to LEARN if this is A FACT.
Sanders: but the truth of this statement I have been UNABLE to definitely ESTABLISH

**** ---- describe/present every known ... [knowledge] ----

Erdnase: ...DESCRIBING with detail and illustration EVERY KNOWN expedient, manoeuvre and strategem [p1]
Sanders: the mines operated under these methods PRESENT EVERY KNOWN characteristic of lode formation.

---- Exact details/minutia (in statements/descriptions) [rigor/precision]----

Erdnase: The EXACT manner in which each artifice is performed is fully DESCRIBED in MINUTIA. [p12]
Sanders: the facts ... may not be EXACT as to SPECIFIC DETAILS and dates although in all but MINOR POINTS the STATEMENTS are correct. [MHS-vol7]

---- enumeration in a volume [precision] ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: The ENUMERATION alone of these devices would fill a VOLUME twice this size [p171]
Sanders: the following ENUMERATION, taken in part from VOLUME 1... [MHS-lib]

Sanders: The various considerations ENUMERATED above were sufficiently conclusive to satisfy the historian..

---- for the purpose of illustration ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: select the four Jacks FOR THE PURPOSE OF ILLUSTRATING how an original athletic tendency [p191]
Sanders: FOR THE PURPOSE OF ILLUSTRATION, assume that...





3) Rigor and Precision

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

Erdnase and Sanders write in a very clear analytical style. This includes the use of mathematical and logical terms such as axiom, true, rules, prove, preclude, requirements, sufficiency, invariably, generally, knowledge, facts. It also involves quantifying and qualifying the degree of precision (to some extent, regularity, etc). Sanders was trained as an engineer and this tendency is likely an outgrowth from that.

****(H) ---- this is generally true but (not always so / exceptions): ---

[updated 9/2018]
Erdnase: That THIS IS GENERALLY TRUE cannot be denied, BUT it is BY NO MEANS ALWAYS SO. [p109]
Sanders: THIS IS GENERALLY TRUE BUT has one or two EXCEPTIONS [SMR]
Sanders: it is CERTAIN that such is TRUE ONLY IN PART [L-1896]
Sanders: This HYPOTHESIS, however, is TRUE ONLY IN PART; for through causes that are SOMETIMES KNOWN, BUT OFTEN are UNKNOWN,

---- with the exception
Erdnase:: WITH THE EXCEPTION of the first shuffle [p75]
Sanders: in a manner almost identical with that of the one-compartment shaft, WITH THE EXCEPTION that the sides plates are...

****(H) ---- impossibility/possibility ----

[updated 2/2019]

---- as it is utterly impossible

Erdnase: AS IT IS UTTERLY IMPOSSIBLE for me to see at all [p176]
Sanders: AS IT IS UTTERLY IMPOSSIBLE to replace the missing papers... [MHS-vol3]

--- almost/entirely impossible ...prove/establish

Erdnase: is ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE, and PROOF of the act is wholly wanting [p24]
Sanders: it PROVED to be ENTIRELY IMPOSSIBLE to ESTABLISH [MHS-vol7]

---- quite/almost impossible .... without

Erdnase: as it appears QUITE IMPOSSIBLE TO throw the top card WITHOUT dropping both. [p120
Sanders: more, it is ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE TO replace a rung WITHOUT destroying

---- preclude the possibility of ----

Erdnase: so as to PRECLUDE THE POSSIBILITY OF the schemer being discovered with the goods on him. [p116]
Sanders: the slope of the vein (21 degrees) PRECLUDES THE POSSIBILITY OF the tripod support being used...[SMR]

---- the greatest/least possible/probability ----

Erdnase: employed with THE GREATEST PROBABILITY of success at the card table [p99]
Sanders: this framing is such as obtains THE GREATEST POSSIBLE stiffness...

Erdnase: THE LEAST POSSIBLE pressure should be exerted when [p38]
Erdnase: the two packets pass through THE LEAST POSSIBLE space in changing their position [p99]
Sanders: to form a connection that will weaken the timbers forming the " set " or frame IN THE LEAST POSSIBLE degree

**** ---- demonstrate/establish the truth of assertion/statement ----

Erdnase: I shall DEMONSTRATE the TRUTH OF my ASSERTION. [p191]
Sanders: but the TRUTH OF this STATEMENT I have been unable definitely to ESTABLISH [MHS-vol7]

Erdnase: but we regret the TRUTH OF the CONFESSION that once upon a time we were... [p116]

**** ---- method/axiom should be strictly/invariably followed/adhered-to ----

Erdnase: It is an EXCELLENT MANNER of holding the deck for the true shuffle, and SHOULD BE STRICTLY ADHERED TO on all occasions. [p29]
Sanders: this latter is an AXIOM in mining during this period of development, and SHOULD BE INVARIABLY FOLLOWED where possible.

Erdnase: It is almost an AXIOM that a novice will win his first stake. [p9]
Sanders: this latter is an AXIOM in mining

**** ---- identically the same as in ----

[updated 3/2019]
Erdnase: The thumb movement is IDENTICALLY THE SAME AS IN the true deal [p55]
Sanders: when set the machine is operated in IDENTICALLY THE SAME WAY AS IN sinking or...[SMR]

Erdnase: The positions of the hands ARE IDENTICALLY THE SAME AS the first method [p85]
Erdnase: Each hand occupies IDENTICALLY THE SAME position. [p161]

---- practically (the same as / identical with)
Erdnase: the method IS PRACTICALLY THE SAME as the "Longitudinal," [p135]
Sanders: a method of spiling is employed that IS PRACTICALLY IDENTICAL WITH...

---- quite (of) equal
Erdnase: it is QUITE EQUAL to the hand shuffle as a blind [p33]
Sanders: and the sets nearly or QUITE of EQUAL size.

**** ---- facts and conditions ----

[added 2/2019]
Erdnase: We give the FACTS AND CONDITIONS of our subject as we find them [p10]
Sanders: is so exact in its fidelity to the topographical features of the region and to geographical FACTS AND CONDITIONS

**** ---- correct positions ... accurately secured/joined ----

Erdnase: The CORRECT POSITIONS and movements can be ACCURATELY SECURED [p24]
Sanders: and the joints thus framed will be in their CORRECT RELATIVE POSITIONS, exact in size and shape, and they will JOIN ACCURATELY with those ....

**** ---- Proof ----

[updated 9/2018]

---- [some bad thing] PROVES to be (UN)SUCCESSFUL ----

Erdnase: other RUSES, which are less risky, have PROVEN UNSUCCESSFUL [p23]
Erdnase: This CLUMSY JUGGLING might PROVE SATISFACTORY if performed by an awkward novice [p165]
Sanders: they [CRIB NOTES] have been PROVED TO BE very SUCCESSFUL [MINER]

--- almost/entirely impossible ... proof

Erdnase: is ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE, and PROOF of the act is wholly wanting [p24]
Sanders: it PROVED to be ENTIRELY IMPOSSIBLE to ESTABLISH [MHS-vol7]

---- conclusively/sufficient prove/satisfy ----

Erdnase: To CONCLUSIVELY PROVE that I take no part in the action [p176]
Sanders: the ample success of the Whiting or Red Jacket double-width six-compartment shaft of the Calumet & Hecla mines is SUFFICIENT PROOF.
Sanders: sufficiently CONCLUSIVE to SATISFY the historian...

---- disprove ----

Erdnase: I have duplicate cards concealed in my coat above, but that is easily DISPROVED [p187]
Sanders: it seems impossible to DISPROVE that his description bears especial reference to... [MHS-vol7]

---- prove ----

Erdnase: and the third card PROVES TO BE the ace. [p123]
Erdnase: To all lovers of card games it should PROVE INTERESTING, [p3]
Sanders: should either of the walls PROVE TO BE WEAK, this single piece
Sanders: the same is not PROVEN, and though the flirting is barely POSSIBLE, it may not have happened.
Sanders: oft PROVED BY RULE OF THUMB [CR poem]

****---- it will be seen by/from the foregoing that... ----

[updated 11/2018]

The passive constructions "It will be seen that" and "it is found to" are often used by technically trained people accustomed to logical arguments, mathematical proofs, etc. In one pairing, we also find an identical reference to the precondition ("the foregoing").

Erdnase: IT WILL HAVE BEEN SEEN BY THE FOREGOING THAT the presentation [p175]
Sanders: Therefore, FROM THE FOREGOING IT WILL BE SEEN THAT the cost of the square set...

Erdnase: IT WILL BE SEEN THAT the old-fashioned or hand shuffle gives the greater possibilities... [p22]
Erdnase: Hence IT WILL BE SEEN THAT proficiency in one artifice does not finish the education of the professional [p23]
Sanders: IT WILL BE SEEN THAT a great deal of timber is used....
Sanders: IT WILL BE SEEN THAT the cost of the square set placed in the mine...

---- is found to
Erdnase: and IT IS FOUND TO consist of the four Queens only. [p172]
Erdnase: selected cards are commanded to change places and FOUND TO have done so. [p177]
Sanders: Indeed, it is a fact that its use in large operations IS OFTEN FOUND TO be cheaper in the end

---- facts ----

---- it is nevertheless (a fact / certain) that ----

Erdnase: IT IS NEVERTHELESS A FACT THAT the coat sleeve of the magician is to him much the same as a Saratoga trunk to a summer girl [p185]
Sanders: IT IS NEVERTHELESS CERTAIN THAT the Class as a whole has followed with very great interest and pride his success and good fortune... [CR bio]

---- it is a fact (well known / often found) ----

Erdnase: but IT IS A FACT WELL KNOWN to conjurers. [p175]
Sanders: indeed, IT IS A FACT that its use in large operations IS OFTEN FOUND to be cheaper in the end...

---- the fact that .... (tell whether / tell the true / accept / find to be ) ----

Erdnase: THE FACT THAT he cannot TELL WHETHER all or none were [p190]
Erdnase: conscious OF THE FACT THAT he himself cannot TELL THE TRUE from the blind [p21]
Sanders: THE FACT THAT on this point Father Coquard ACCEPTED the indirect or hearsay EVIDENCE
Sanders: it is A FACT THAT its use in large operations is often FOUND TO BE

---- (as a rule / generally) careless ----

[added 5/2018]
erdnase: and AS A RULE IS generous, CARELESS and improvident.
Sanders: they are GENERALLY caused by CARELESSNESS as in improperly feeding the machine or by....

---- the rule (is / should be) --------- [technical-speak idiom] ----

Erdnase: THE RULE IS "divide the number by thirteen," [p183-184]
Erdnase: The INVIOLABLE RULE of the professional IS uniformity of action [p22]
Sanders: THE RULE SHOULD BE that the size of workings must be ample to carry out their purposes properly, BUT NOT larger than is necessary for ...

Erdnase: The cautious and prudent expert MAKES IT A RULE to NEVER "hold out," or palm extra cards.. [p115]
Erdnase: IT IS THE RULE for players to cut in about the same manner each time. [p113]
Erdnase: AS A GENERAL RULE the card expert WILL NOT hold out EXCEPT on his own deal for the cut [p113]

---- Laws of nature and cause and effect ----

[updated 9/2018]

---- laws of truth/nature/chance/science ----

Erdnase: The LAWS OF CHANCE are as IMMUTABLE as the LAWS OF NATURE. [p9]
Sanders: Acquire the LAWS OF TECHNIC TRUTH AND SCIENTIFIC LORE [CR poem]

---- fundamental principles/forces

Erdnase: to obtain an understanding of its FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES [p194]
Sanders: All pressure affecting earthworks is due to NATURAL FORCES, of which GRAVITY acting vertically downward is the FUNDAMENTAL consideration.

---- cause and effect

Erdnase: one must have an understanding of THE CAUSE AND EFFECT of the various actions. [p80]
Sanders: or to follow out in them the relation between CAUSE AND EFFECT

---- (caused by | due to) resistance [as force in physics]

Erdnase: The turn is CAUSED BY the RESISTANCE of the air against the protruding side. [p170]
Sanders: The pressure-forces encountered in underground excavations are DUE TO THE RESISTANCES offered by the rock-masses to the force of gravity

---- data ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: give once more to the world complete and SCIENTIFIC DATA for positively ascertaining the immediate whereabouts of such metals as gold [p175]
Sanders: unique document that is readable and fairly well filled with DATA culled in a measure from... [ML1913]

---- the required (used as an adjective) ----

Erdnase: repeated until THE REQUIRED number are jogged [p63]
Erdnase: If THE REQUIRED suit is the next [p183]
Erdnase: and mentally urge THE REQUIRED action [p196]
Sanders: each scantling is bored at THE REQUIRED intervals
Sanders: it sometimes happens that THE REQUIRED information
Sanders: poles of THE REQUIRED length

☛ See also THE adj noun (reified)

Quantifying and qualifying

---- (rarely / only on) and then only ----

Erdnase: will hold too many ONLY ON his own deal, AND THEN ONLY before the draw. [p115]
Sanders: is RARELY used for the inclines, AND THEN ONLY when posts are employed to form...

Erdnase: is practiced ONLY WHEN the player is alone [p113]
Sanders: is without doubt an excellent one WHEN, AND ONLY WHEN, the entire pressure upon...

---- any considerable ----

Erdnase: can be accomplished to ANY CONSIDERABLE extent [p65]
Erdnase: all men who play for ANY CONSIDERABLE stakes are looking for the best [p10]
Sanders: is not in itself sufficient to sustain ANY CONSIDERABLE thrust without a tendency ....
Sanders: the discovery had brought together ANY CONSIDERABLE number of persons

Sanders: to A CONSIDERABLE DEGREE taken their place in architectural structures

---- proportionately ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: the action and time are shortened PROPORTIONATELY [p81]
Sanders: and thereby weakens the pieces at such points PROPORTIONATELY

---- to some extent ----

Erdnase: prearranging TO SOME EXTENT for his deal. [p60]
Erdnase: TO SOME EXTENT with that chance in view. [p109]
Erdnase: without employing the prearranged deck TO SOME EXTENT [p185]
Sanders: although altered TO SOME EXTENT by the influence... [MHS-vol7]
Sanders: and the grades will be necessarily mixed TO SOME EXTENT. [SMR]

Sanders: classified TO SUCH AN EXTENT as will greatly aid those who desire... [MHS-lib]

---- in such/which case ----

[added 11/2018]
Erdnase: IN SUCH CASE the cards are not crimped. [p124]
Erdnase: IN SUCH CASE the performer will at once state [p190]
Sanders: IN SUCH CASES the remedy is usually applied
Sanders: often IN SUCH CASES from what will be its top

Erdnase: IN WHICH CASE the assistance of the deck for the third exchange is not required [p178]
Sanders: IN WHICH CASE the sets are framed with a hitch..

---- such conditions ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: Will they endure SUCH CONDITIONS?
Sanders: successfully employed to meet just SUCH CONDITIONS in swelling ground. [MT]
Sanders: Under SUCH CONDITIONS the use of full-length wall plates is impossible, [MT]
Sanders: Under SUCH CONDITIONS was born the infant Life, [MHS-vol7]

---- without/little heed ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: while the deck is being shuffled apparently WITHOUT HEED or design. [p20]
Sanders: seldom takeup a pen for writing and pay LITTLE HEED to letters [MHS-lib]

---- at some other point ----

[added 11/2018]
Erdnase: but of course hesitating AT SOME OTHER POINT. [p166]
Sanders: and another shape or construction more suitable AT SOME OTHER POINT

---- all the various ----

[added 11/2018]
Erdnase: insist that ALL OR ANY OF THE VARIOUS methods of executing it [p125]
Sanders: ALL THE VARIOUS newspapers... [MHS-lib]

--- almost universal belief/acceptance ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: the ALMOST UNIVERSAL BELIEF that none but the unsophisticated can be deceived... [p21]
Sanders: are now ALMOST UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTED as affording the greatest possible strength

---- almost invariably ----

[added 11/2018]
Erdnase: It is ALMOST INVARIABLY done quite openly, and in company where... [p18]
Sanders: but round timbers for the level workings are ALMOST INVARIABLY shaped by hand





4) Excellence

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

Both Sanders and Erdnase have a respect and almost reverence for [Excellence]. This includes several facets:

There is also overlap with the theme of [Rigor/precision] in words like "utmost" and "perfect" (over 70 occurrences in Erdnase) that imply both [Excellence] and [Rigor/precision]. Claims for the superiority of particular methods appear repeatedly.

It is also significant that this regard for excellence is highlighted in the title of The Expert at the Card Table. The term "expert" appears over twenty times in the body of the book. Similarly, Sanders uses the term a half a dozen times or more while describing the occupations of his classmates. And as mentioned, the concern for expertise carries over into the subtheme of [education]. It is also worth mentioning that Sanders, himself, was considered "one of the greatest copper experts of the West." [Tonopah Bonanza, Aug 17, 1907]

Some terms related to evaluating excellence: satisfactory, perfection, utmost, worthy, greatest, advanced, superior, by far, excellent, post-graduate, best, simplest, grace, artistic, pretty, novel, artistic, inartistic, artlessness, contrivance, honorable, upright ...

[excellence (or lack of) in methods... and superlatives more generally]

****(H) ---- MOST x and y MACHINE/DEVICE EVER/YET CONSTRUCTED ----

[updated 11/2018]

Erdnase: the MOST novel AND perfect MACHINES EVER CONSTRUCTED [p15]
Sanders: the simplest AND MOST easily manipulated DEVICE YET CONSTRUCTED

Erdnase: the MOST subtle AND ingenious gambling GAMES EVER DEVISED [p117]

Erdnase: one of the most most NOVEL and perfect machines ever CONSTRUCTED makes [p15]
Sanders: it consists of the NOVEL features of CONSTRUCTION... [Patent]

**** ---- the greatest advantage ----

Erdnase: if requested to determine from what single artifice THE GREATEST ADVANTAGE is derived we would unhesitatingly decide... [p23]
Sanders: the plan above described may be of THE GREATEST ADVANTAGE in blocking-out the ores...

**** ---- assistance/simple-system is CUMBERSOME and menace/expensive ----

Erdnase: the expert professional disdains THEIR ASSISTANCE. They are CUMBERSOME, unnecessary, and a constant MENACE to his reputation. [p15]
Sanders: This SYSTEM of shaft timbering is the SIMPLEST and often the cheapest in use BUT it becomes CUMBERSOME and EXPENSIVE.

Erdnase: in this respect is that the really clever card-handler can dispense with the ENDLESS DEVICES AND PREPARATIONS that ENCUMBER the performer in other branches.

Sanders: their traditions of heroism amidst the encircling MENACE of angry hordes [CR bio]

**** ---- contrivances/makeshifts ----

Erdnase: Many mechanical CONTRIVANCES termed "hold outs" [p14]
Erdnase: and will dispense with such MAKESHIFTS as "cold decks" or any kind of prepared cards. [p19]
Sanders: and all other CONTRIVANCES whatsoever
Sanders: the various other CONTRIVANCES in use for enabling the timbers to come together [MTE]
Sanders: the accommodation of CONTRIVANCES connected with the drainage [L1-1906]

****---- best/easiest/simplest/cheapest method ----

Erdnase: the BEST AND SIMPLEST METHODS of accomplishing the sleights [p24]
Sanders: being the SIMPLEST AND CHEAPEST METHOD OF framing

Erdnase: method of stocking which has just been explained is very SIMPLE AND EASY to understand [p68]
Erdnase: This change is one of the SIMPLEST AND EASIEST feats [p149]
Erdnase: The action is very SIMPLE AND EASY to execute, [p40]
Sanders: these bolts are the SIMPLEST AND MOST EASILY manipulated device yet constructed

---- incredible/remarkable rapidity ----

[added 11/2018]
Erdnase: a practiced operator can run up one or two hands with INCREDIBLE RAPIDITY [p61]
Sanders: drawing the sap upward into the top and drying the wood with REMARKABLE RAPIDITY

---- (by far the more/most | utmost | superior | ...) ----

Erdnase: this method IS NOW BY FAR THE MORE prevalent among men who play for money [p21]
Erdnase: The riffle ... IS BY FAR THE MORE prevalent method in use among regular card players. [p33]
Sanders: this station, while requiring more excavating to construct, IS BY FAR THE MOST economical in the end

Erdnase: acquiring perfect ability to run the whole deck through in this manner with THE UTMOST rapidity [p26]
Erdnase: An expert can run the whole deck with THE UTMOST rapidity [p58]
Sanders: huge timbers that have been frames with THE UTMOST precision
Sanders: whose opinions on this subject are entitled to THE UTMOST attention [MHS-vol7]

Erdnase: believe them VASTLY SUPERIOR to others that have come under our observation. [p14] Erdnase: is INFINITELY SUPERIOR to the common method of inserting [p27]
Sanders: such a construction is considered to be SUPERIOR in strength to the circular form.

Other, non-matching, superlatives...

Erdnase: the ACME of ingenuity and mechanical skill has been reached [p18]
Erdnase: the ACME of control [p197]
Sanders: FAR IN ADVANCE of that in use among the older and less progressive mining communities.
Sanders: and represents THE MOST ADVANCED timbering in use.
Sanders: lifted to that utmost PINNACLE of human ecstacy [CR bio]

---- culminate ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: The passion CULMINATES in the professional. [p9]
Sanders: they were to CULMINATE in the building up of a Commonwealth [MHS-vol7]

---- an excellent one [somewhat idiomatic] ----

Erdnase: The first described is AN EXCELLENT ONE for retaining either the top or bottom stock [p39]
Erdnase: The position is AN EXCELLENT ONE for ordinary dealing, and should never be changed. [p54]
Erdnase: The latter position is AN EXCELLENT ONE [p134]
Sanders: this joint is without doubt AN EXCELLENT ONE

[excellence and respect for education/knowledge]

**** ---- take a post-graduate course in a field/vocation. ----

Erdnase: to TAKE A POST-GRADUATE COURSE in the highest and most artistic branches of his vocation [p3]
Erdnase: However, THE POST-GRADUATE in the art is quite conscious of the fact [p21]
Sanders: during the following year HE TOOK A POST-GRADUATE COURSE in Civil Engineering [CR bio]

**** ---- CURRICULUM: educational path: study and practical experience [education - thematic] ----

For both, an educational path is described by the study and the CURRICULUM ("close application and constant study," "burned the midnight oil"), but KNOWLEDGE is ultimately achieved through practical experience ("cold school of experience," "practical observation").

Erdnase: After the awakening our education progressed through CLOSE APPLICATION AND CONSTANT STUDY of the game, and the SUM OF OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE is proffered in this volume [p14]
Erdnase: essential to the CURRICULUM of artistic card handling [p25]
Erdnase: Our TUITION was received in the COLD SCHOOL OF EXPERIENCE. [p14]
Sanders: The COURSES WE POURED OVER, the STUDIES over which we BURNED THE MIDNIGHT OIL, the subjects of the CURRICULUM,
Sanders: we gained by PRACTICAL OBSERVATION much VALUABLE KNOWLEDGE of our future chosen work,
Sanders: Preliminary TRAINING of a PRACTICAL NATURE is an indispensable part of the equipment of the successful operator
Sanders: He had been TAUGHT IN THE SCHOOL of General Thomas, the silent, cheerful, obstinate "rock of Chicamuaga." [MHS-vo2]
Sanders: oft PROVED BY RULE OF THUMB [CR poem]

We also hear echoes of Erdnase's "cold school of experience" (in the context of gaming) in this excerpt from Sanders about the life of a mining engineer.

Sanders: you QUIT THE GAME our mining engineers have played, Through ARCTIC COLD and tropic flame

[added 2/2019]
And both Erdnase and Sanders use identical terminology to highlight the breadth of real-world experience.

Erdnase: A VARIED EXPERIENCE has impressed us with the belief that all men... [p10]
Sanders: From the winter of '88 until the fall of '90 a somewhat VARIED EXPERIENCE as expert in twine manufacture [CR bio]

☛ See also "for practical purposes" for more on the theme of theory vs practice.

**** Relationship with knowledge

---- our/my early knowledge ----

Erdnase: we sorrowfully admit that OUR OWN EARLY KNOWLEDGE was acquired ... [p10-11]
Sanders: From MY EARLY KNOWLEDGE of you [CR poem]

----- thorough knowledge ----

[added 2/2019]
Erdnase: supplemented by a THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE of "blind" cutting [p21]
Sanders: who possessed a THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE of the aboriginal peculiarities and characteristics [MHS-vol2 footnote]

---- intimate acquaintance/associations ----

Erdnase: An INTIMATE ACQUAINTANCE with the modus operandi of card table artifice
Sanders: the INTIMATE ASSOCIATIONS which in youths of generous minds form a mutual regard
sanders: and, furthermore, a DEFINITE ACQUAINTANCE with the upper Missouri country is assured in the certainty with which..

---- an understanding. ----

Erdnase: It is not difficult if A PROPER UNDERSTANDING of the action is obtained [p140]
Erdnase: to obtain AN UNDERSTANDING of its fundamental principles, [p194]
Sanders: definite information as to that name, the word "Montana," or an UNDERSTANDING as to its actual significance...
Sanders: with this UNDERSTANDING the qualifying word mountainous will be employed as a noun, properly and logically to signify,

---- road to success ----

Erdnase: the student will be fairly established on the ROAD TO SUCCESS, and have overcome by far the greatest difficulty. [p80]
Sanders: while the story is easy to relate, the ROAD at times has been a hard one to travel, but abundant SUCCESS seems to have been the reward. [CR bio]

----- intellectual/literary faculty ----

[added 3/2019]
Erdnase: by failing to fathom the subtlety of some lady's INTELLECTUAL FACULTY [p190]
Sanders: highly INTELLECTUAL people, but among them there was a signal lack of the LITERARY FACULTY [mhs-vol2 intro]

---- enlightenment ----

Erdnase: inspire the crafty by ENLIGHTENMENT on artifice. [p3]
Erdnase: benefit of the UNENLIGHTENED or curious reader we shall describe [p16]
Sanders: the various objects which might serve TO ENLIGHTEN us upon the Archaeology and ... [MHS-lib]
Sanders: home of an advanced and ENLIGHTENED civilization [MHS-lib]

Erdnase: After THE AWAKENING our education progressed through close application and... [p14]

----- the art [field of knowledge, as in "state of THE ART"] ----

[added 11/2018]
Erdnase: Although many professors of THE ART vehemently deny the imputation... [p185]
Sanders: in any of the ways known to THE ART [Patent]

[excellence in aesthetics and merit]

**** ---- produce/present a PLEASING effect/appearance ----

In addition to parallel syntax, meaning, and word choice (produce pleasing effectpresent pleasing appearance), note also the common use of alliteration on the letter P in both. This includes the near alliteration on the B, which is a bilabial plosive like P.

Erdnase: never fails in PRODUCING a most PLEASING and brilliant EFFECT. [p188]
Sanders: when thus placed the passage PRESENTS a PLEASING APPEARANCE.

---- artistic/beauty/picturesque/splendid/grace (or not) [thematic] ----

Aesthetic judgements are made with phrases like "very pretty" and "the beauty of" as well as terms such as "artistic", "splendid" and "grace."

Erdnase: We think it is VERY PRETTY. [p154]
Erdnase: A VERY PRETTY true cut is made in the following manner. [p46]
Erdnase: This is a VERY PRETTY method of varying the deal, and [p56]
Sanders: it was a VERY PRETTY site, on the right bank of the Platte river

Erdnase: the BEAUTY OF the shift is in the natural and simple manner of palming the selected card
Erdnase: but THE BEAUTY OF it is that if noticed it can be attributed to thoughtlessness.
Sanders: because of THE EXCEEDING EUPHONIC BEAUTY OF the word, Montana is indeed foremost among the proud names of States

Erdnase: most ARTISTIC branches of his vocation [p3]
Erdnase: the curriculum of ARTISTIC card handling. [p25]
Erdnase: when making his own discard, is INARTISTIC, and risky, [p115]
Sanders: that from their very ARTLESSNESS and ingenuousness should convince...
Sanders: mining report that is less PICTURESQUE, less unique
Sanders: the not less PICTURESQUE nor less barbaric trappers

Erdnase: But this is a SPLENDID change for many purposes. [p151]
Sanders: largest and most SPLENDID ship of the armada

Erdnase: and such BUNGLERS must learn to handle a deck GRACEFULLY before attempting a flight to the HIGHER BRANCHES of card manipulation. [p22]
Erdnase: when the action is GRACEFULLY executed without either haste or hesitation [p37]
Erdnase: with any degree of GRACE or SMOOTHNESS, [p37]
Sanders: He hez WONDROUS GRACE in hiz nether pegs, when he pir-hoo-etts on hiz rear hind legs
Sanders: we cheer good lad your heart of GRACE, your pride that ne'er has halted. [CR poem]
Sanders: so GRACELESS a character (and punster) as Cozzens. [CR bio]

---- artistic/delightful/fine VOCATION [education + aesthetics] ----

Erdnase: in the highest and most ARTISTIC branches of his VOCATION [p3]
Sanders: your successes do DELIGHT US in the work of your VOCATION [CR poem]
Sanders: engaged in the DELIGHTFUL AVOCATION of underground work [CR bio]
Sanders: Where so FINE an AVOCATION? [CR poem]

---- misty/lofty [poetric/florid thematic terms]----

Erdnase: require nothing more than a bare suspicion of skill to immediately seek a less MISTY atmosphere. [p24]
Sanders: As o'er fair stretches MISTY curtains drift [CR poem]
Sanders: Save MISTY years, save through some vagrant rift [CR poem]

Erdnase: call upon all four Jacks to execute their ground and LOFTY tumbling [p192]
Sanders: found fame and worthily won his way to proud and LOFTY eminence [CR bio]
Sanders: In imagination let us ascend to some LOFTY height from which we may view... [MHS-vol7]

---- (fascinating | many interesting) [thematic] ----

[updated 9/2018]
Erdnase: Acquiring the art is in itself a most FASCINATING pastime [p127]
Erdnase: It is the most FASCINATING of layout games. [p18]
Sanders: but always the FASCINATING existence of the honest miner and the princely smelterman

----- many interesting (in context of writing/publishing)
Erdnase: the sleights employed in conjuring and MANY VERY INTERESTING card tricks. [p12]
Sanders: a library has been gathered which contains MANY valuable and INTERESTING works
Sanders: and MANY INTERESTING papers are thus obtained

**** ---- in every way better/worthy ----

[updated 5/2018]

Erdnase: It is IN EVERY WAY WORTHY of the practice necessary to acquire it [p134]
Sanders: good mining practice makes use of the framed set as being stronger and IN EVERY WAY BETTER.
Sanders: Here his work is WORTHY and WORTHILY done. [CR bio]

Others highlighting excellence in merit:

Erdnase: gentleman in the audience who is desirous of giving my ability A FAIR AND IMPARTIAL test [p194]
Sanders: the following excerpts from the text will convince any FAIR MINDED UNBIASED mining engineer.

Erdnase: the MERIT of the feat will be solely due to the mysterious properties [p176]
Sanders: and smile with friendly nod or frown in well-MERITED rebuke [CR bio]

Erdnase: they may be with more PROPRIETY, taken up into both hands and squared. [p114]
Sanders: as regards the undoubted PROPRIETY and fitness of the word Montana as a name employed [MHS-vol7]

--- the real value of ----

[added 5/2018]

Erdnase: He knows little of THE REAL VALUE OF money [p10]
Sanders: THE REAL VALUE OF the inclined-bottom bin lies in its facility of discharge

---- Another phrase also related to an appreciation on cost and value... ----
Erdnase: knowledge was acquired at the usual EXCESSIVE COST to the uninitiated. [p11]
Sanders: because it does away with the ponderous and EXCESSIVELY COSTLY ... [THESIS]






5) Methods and practicality

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

This engineering-oriented theme involves the characterization of [methods], including their effectiveness and practicality. As such, it overlaps with the earlier themes of [rigor/precision] and [excellence]. Terms: employ, manner, method, difficulties, system, process, advantageous, in practice, successful, etc. To some degree, these thematic terms and phrases are part and parcel of any technical domain (such as sleight of hand or mining). However, by grouping these examples together, we can better appreciate the sometimes striking level of similarity in phrasing, word choice, and concept— far more than would be expected from the technical domains alone.

****(H) ---- difficulties/objections OVERCOME BY the use of XX which is YY ----

Erdnase: This OBJECTION is entirely OVERCOME BY THE USE OF the break, WHICH IS illustrated in the following blind shuffle [p31]
Sanders: this DIFFICULTY is OVERCOME BY THE USE OF a half right-angled miter, of 45 deg., WHICH IS framed from the face of the timber...

****(H) ---- difficulties OVERCOME BY knowledge/understanding ----

Erdnase: When the positions and process are thoroughly UNDERSTOOD the main DIFFICULTIES ARE OVERCOME [p90]
Sanders: It is only by actual KNOWLEDGE in the handling of affairs that he is enabled to judge correctly of the conditions and to apply the proper remedies for OVERCOMING THE DIFFICULTIES that are continually arising.

Erdnase: and have OVERCOME by far the greatest DIFFICULTY. [p80]
Sanders: which DIFFICULTY may in a measure BE OVERCOME by diagonal spiling

[added 5/2018]
---- difficulty is avoided ----
Erdnase: the DIFFICULTY of the twisting out process IS AVOIDED. [p163]
Sanders: the DIFFICULT and expensive construction of the sloping bottom bin IS AVOIDED.

****(H) ---- may be employed advantageously under XX circumstances/conditions ----

[updated 3/2019]

Erdnase: several processes that MAY BE EMPLOYED ADVANTAGEOUSLY UNDER special CIRCUMSTANCES. [p144]
Erdnase: the most FAVORABLE CONDITIONS UNDER which the ruse can be EMPLOYED. [p57]
Sanders: but they MAY BE EMPLOYED ADVANTAGEOUSLY UNDER ALL CONDITIONS, except where the structure... [L1-1906]

Erdnase uses the term "employ" 44 times. It is often pointed to as a "signature" word for him. Significantly, Sanders also uses it extensively, over 30 times in Mine Timbering alone. Here are some other ways they use it in common:

---- may be employed with great ----
Erdnase: shift that MAY BE EMPLOYED WITH the GREATEST probability of success [p99]
Sanders: and it MAY BE EMPLOYED WITH GREAT benefit

---- generally employed
Erdnase: A third way, and the most GENERALLY EMPLOYED, is for [p114]
Sanders: now so GENERALLY EMPLOYED among the metal mines

---- successfully employed ----
Erdnase: EMPLOYED with the greatest probability of SUCCESS at the card table [p99]
Erdnase: to EMPLOY a machine SUCCESSFULLY requires considerable address [p15]
Sanders: SUCCESSFULLY EMPLOYED to meet just such conditions in swelling ground. [MT]

---- methods employed ----
Erdnase: the several METHODS EMPLOYED appear the same as those in common every-day usage. [p164]
Sanders: may METHODS of framing the joints have been EMPLOYED and many forms of joints used.

---- (process) ... employed ... (for the/this purpose) ----
Erdnase: In this PROCESS an entirely different subterfuge IS EMPLOYED, and it is probably the most ingenious ever devised FOR THE PURPOSE [p149]
Sanders: For this purpose the PROCESS known as spiling or forepoling IS EMPLOYED
Sanders: with some form of the v-tenon IS EMPLOYED FOR THE PURPOSE of dividing the cross-sectional area

**** ---- There would/can be little advantage... if/were (conditional) ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: THERE WOULD BE LITTLE ADVANTAGE derived from clever shuffling, WERE the order to be subsequently disturbed in cutting [p39]
Sanders: THERE CAN BE LITTLE ADVANTAGE to the profession at large IF the discussion as to the best shape for a shaft is to be... [L1-1906]

**** ---- be successfully worked [transitive use of "work"] ----

Erdnase: The methods described can BE SUCCESSFULLY WORKED with as many as eight or ten cards [p115] Erdnase: we shall describe an exception that is at times WORKED SUCCESSFULLY [p114]
Sanders: from the deposits too small to BE SUCCESSFULLY WORKED in a commercial way

Erdnase: The top card is brought to the bottom by a ruse WORKED in connection with the Blind Cut [p103-104]
Erdnase: Some ARE WORKED by arm pressure [p15]
Sanders: the face HAS BEEN WORKED to line with the assumed plane
Sanders: the selected face IS WORKED to straight-edges, sighting
Sanders: and the valve (slide) IS WORKED INDEPENDENTLY by a separate machine [SMR]

("successfully worked" gleaned from from Carlo Morpurgo's overlapping sequences)

**** ---- the entire work (should be) done ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: The ENTIRE WORK SHOULD BE DONE by the second fingers and thumbs. [p38]
Sanders: and THE ENTIRE WORK DONE during admission and expansion [THESIS]

Ease of methods

**** ---- without inconvenience ----

Erdnase: The bottom palm may be held while the deal is in progress WITHOUT INCONVENIENCE. [p93]
Sanders: leaves sufficient hight for passage WITHOUT INCONVENIENCE.

---- other double negatives ----
Erdnase: NOT at all UNCERTAIN about your memory. [p195]

**** ---- the ease with which ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: To show THE EASE WITH WHICH the cards travel I shall [p187]
Sanders: and THE EASE WITH WHICH it may be manipulated [MTE]

**** ---- require (little or no | little if any) ----

Erdnase: LITTLE OR NO skill is REQUIRED, but a practiced hand can locate and bring the cards... [p62]
Sanders: shafts sunk in some localities REQUIRE LITTLE IF ANY timbering

---- little or no... and/but ----
Erdnase: There is LITTLE OR NO difficulty in performing this perfectly, AND the deal can be... [p94]
Sanders: large excavations may be supported with LITTLE OR NO timbering, BUT usually... [p18]

---- little difficulty ----
Erdnase: There is very LITTLE DIFFICULTY in acquiring the ability [p119]
Sanders: removed and replaced with apparently LITTLE DIFFICULTY [L1-1906]

---- with little ... ----
Erdnase: Strippers may be used in Faro WITH LITTLE fear of detection
Sanders: legal connections are looked upon WITH LITTLE favor by the average Mining Engineer;

---- requires no ... ----
Erdnase: It REQUIRES NO feat of memory [p73]
Sanders: this qualification, of itself, REQUIRES NO APOLOGY

---- can be readily ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: The percentage in their favor is a known quantity, or CAN BE READILY calculated
Sanders: The leaf jk CAN BE READILY applied to any flat-bottom bin already constructed

---- facility ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: in acquiring FACILITY to push out the bottom card [p54]
Sanders: the real value of the inclined-bottom bin lies in its FACILITY of discharge

---- greatly aid ----

Erdnase: risks that are taken MAY AID GREATLY in lessening the casualties. [p11]
Sanders: will be classified to such an extent as WILL GREATLY AID those who desire to ...[MHS-lib]
Sanders: Many of Montana's citizens find the collection A GREAT AID in looking up matters... [MHS-lib]

Patterns/frequency of use

**** ---- RARELY USED/ATTEMPTED in a system ... and/but ----

Erdnase: running down so many cards WILL RARELY BE ATTEMPTED, BUT it shows the possibilities of the SYSTEM. [p82]
Sanders: the halved SYSTEM of framing, as explained under vertical shafts, IS RARELY USED for the inclines, AND then only when posts are employed to...

Erdnase: Printed cards are manufactured, but these ARE RARELY USED by professionals. [p16]

---- are much used ----

Erdnase: Prepared cards known as Strippers ARE MUCH USED by certain players [p17]
Sanders: Circular shafts are but little employed in America, but they ARE MUCH USED in Europe [L1-1906]

---- in general use ----

Erdnase: It is probably the oldest and best IN GENERAL USE. [p97]
Sanders: which it would seem is likely to come INTO GENERAL USE
Sanders: which has brought the single-width construction INTO SUCH GENERAL USE. [L1-1906]

---- usually made ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: The cut is USUALLY MADE in this way [p110]
Sanders: yet there is a distinction USUALLY MADE in that the longer pair

---- those in use ----

Erdnase: the several methods employed appear the same as THOSE IN COMMON EVERY-DAY USAGE. [p164]
Sanders: the systems of timbering dealt with are THOSE IN USE among the mines of the mountainous regions

---- the practice of XX ["practice" meaning "habitual action"]----

Erdnase: Some players make A PRACTICE OF marking cards during [p17]
Sanders: the modern PRACTICE OF balancing loads [L1-1906]
Sanders: good mining PRACTICE makes use of the framed set... [MT]

---- oftentimes success/failure ----

Erdnase: A daring and yet OFTENTIMES SUCCESSFUL ruse of overcoming the cut difficulty [p110]
Erdnase: The mode of cutting OFTENTIMES becomes a HABIT that is unconsciously followed. [p113]
Sanders: OFT-TIMES they DRAW THE RICHEST PRIZE, most OFTENTIMES GET BLANKS
Sanders: certain variations of these several joints are employed, OFTENTIMES TO ADVANTAGE...

Various locutions using "manner" (and related)

**** ---- in the same manner as described ----

Erdnase: The deck is held IN exactly THE SAME MANNER AS DESCRIBED for bottom dealing. [p56]
Sanders: have been brought to their places IN THE SAME MANNER as has been DESCRIBED

**** ---- in MUCH THE SAME manner ----

Erdnase: The top palm can be made with the right hand IN MUCH THE SAME MANNER
Erdnase: right hand packet again on top IN MUCH THE SAME MANNER.
Sanders: near the center of the set in MUCH THE SAME MANNER as are located the end posts or plates.

Erdnase: the coat sleeve of the magician is to him MUCH THE SAME as a Saratoga trunk to a summer girl
Erdnase: This brings the hands into MUCH THE SAME position 20
Erdnase: In this process the action is much the same,

**** ---- accomplished in the following manner ---

[added 5/2018]
erdnase: It can be ACCOMPLISHED IN THE FOLLOWING MANNER: [p62]
Sanders: the hole is now charged which IS ACCOMPLISHED IN THE FOLLOWING MANNER as observed,... [SMR]

**** ---- treated in this manner ... and operation/runs repeated/alternated ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: The four Aces are TREATED IN THIS MANNER, then turned end for end, and the OPERATION REPEATED. [p16]
Sanders: the other set is TREATED IN A SIMILAR MANNER and so are the RUNS WORKED ALTERNATELY [SMR]

---- in like manner ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: the left-hand packet, which is brought down IN LIKE MANNER, and so on. [p104]
Sanders: to which is bolted IN A LIKE MANNER the plunger piece [THESIS]

---- in such a manner ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: the deck IN SUCH A MANNER that the most critical observer [p83]
Sanders: that they otherwise might IN SUCH MANNER as they would wish to.

---- this style of xx is possible/preferable ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: which make THIS STYLE OF shuffle POSSIBLE [p125]
Sanders: THIS STYLE OF cylinder is PREFERABLE because it causes the whole of the weights [THESIS]

Suitability/necessity of methods

---- particularly/equally (well) adapted ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: This method of blind cutting is PARTICULARLY ADAPTED for working in with the blind riffle [p44]
Erdnase: it is EQUALLY WELL ADAPTED for retaining the top or bottom portion [p20]
Sanders: Such shafts are PARTICULARLY WELL ADAPTED to firm ground [L1-1906]

---- best suited to ----

Erdnase: but he can pick up any card or group of cards in the order BEST SUITED TO his design [p82]
Sanders: come together from the six directions in a manner BEST SUITED TO the needs of the occasion.

**** ---- indispensable for the (successful operator | professional player) ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: This artifice is erroneously supposed to be INDISPENSABLE to THE PROFESSIONAL PLAYER [p95]
Sanders: Preliminary training of a practical nature is an INDISPENSABLE part of the equipment of THE SUCCESSFUL OPERATOR

☛ See also THE adj noun (reified)

---- for practical purposes ----

Erdnase: The possibilities of the riffle, FOR ALL PRACTICAL PURPOSES at the card table [p33]
Erdnase: and FOR PRACTICAL PURPOSES stocking more than three should not be attempted [p77]
Sanders: would be far too cumbersome FOR PRACTICAL PURPOSES [RSMW]

---- in practice (and in theory) ----
Erdnase: IN THEORY it seems that this action will be very easily noticed. IN PRACTICE, if cleverly performed, it is almost impossible to detect. [pp147-148]
Sanders: IN PRACTICE certain variations of these several joints are employed, oftentimes to advantage, but the above discussion is intended to describe the PRACTICAL METHODS of framing the typical rectangular shaft set.

Sanders: Preliminary training of a PRACTICAL NATURE is an indispensable part of the equipment of the successful operator,

☛ See also practical education

Various locutions using "method"

---- methods of locating and *-ing ----

Erdnase: various METHODS OF LOCATING AND PRODUCING selected cards [p128]
Erdnase: A more artistic METHOD OF LOCATING and SECURING cards [p62]
Erdnase: ordinary METHODS OF stocking, LOCATING and SECURING [p60]
Sanders: the METHODS OF LOCATING AND ALIGNING the sets are those used for...

Sanders: the METHOD OF LOCATING the sets

---- the modern method/practice ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: THE MODERN METHOD of shuffling on the table [p28]
Sanders: THE MODERN PRACTICE of balancing loads upon the hoisting engine [letter 1906]

---- improving old methods ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: Many professionals have attained their success by IMPROVING OLD METHODS, or inventing new ones [p14]
Sanders: and in IMPROVING UPON WELL-KNOWN METHODS already in vogue

---- THE USUAL method/practice/manner/ ...plan/procedure/way/ (samples) ----

Erdnase: The USUAL METHOD of "forcing" is to bring the particular [p143]
Sanders: when the USUAL METHODS of timbering may be resorted to.

Erdnase: The USUAL PRACTICE is to deal from the bottom. [p83]
Sanders: the USUAL PRACTICE in the West being for each
Sanders: the USUAL PRACTICE being to make the inner faces of the station sets aline with those of...

Erdnase: bring it down IN THE USUAL WAY of shuffling on [p160]
Sanders: are hung IN THE USUAL WAY by lag-screws [L2-1906]

Erdnase: card with the thumb in the USUAL MANNER [p56]
Sanders: to afford secure support to the sets by blocking and wedging in the USUAL MANNER.

---- by this method/plan/means/ ----

Erdnase: and much time and labor are saved BY THIS PLAN. [p24]
Erdnase: Two or more hands may be run up BY THIS METHOD [p66]
Erdnase: and BY THIS EXPEDIENT overcomes the principal obstacle [p96]
Erdnase: ascertaining its suit and value BY THIS MEANS as he holds it poised in the right hand. [p182]
Sanders: BY THIS METHOD the frames can be so exactly dimensioned that...

Details of specific methods (e.g. holding and positions) and problems (friction)

---- in the same relative position ----

Erdnase: it leaves the top and bottom cards IN THE SAME RELATIVE POSITION
Sanders: both being placed IN THE SAME RELATIVE POSITION within the joint

---- roughen to hold (together) ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: By ROUGHENING the faces of some of the cards they will HOLD TOGETHER [p18]
Sanders: surfaces are ROUGHENED to aid in its HOLDING TO the wooden end pieces

---- held in position ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: The in-jog card is HELD IN POSITION by the little finger [p31]
Sanders: these sets are HELD IN POSITION by distance pieces

---- bind/hold firmly together ----

Erdnase: the other fingers and thumb HOLDING the packet FIRMLY TOGETHER. [p135]
Erdnase: the first, second and third fingers HOLDING the cards FIRMLY IN PLACE [p144]
Sanders: in order to BIND the frames FIRMLY TOGETHER at this point
Sanders: only serves to BIND the set more FIRMLY TOGETHER

---- detriment ----

Erdnase: and the slightest friction is a DETRIMENT to perfect manipulation. [p25]
Sanders: the piston pounds on the cylinder head to the DETRIMENT of the machine. [SMR]





6) Crossover content and topics

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

Several topics appear in the writings of both men. It is especially significant when Sanders writes about gambling and uses gambling terminology, including similar metaphors. It is also significant when Erdnase references mining, archaelogy, and historical prservation— all key biographical elements from Sanders' life as a mining engineer and Librarian for the Historical Society of Montana. And likewise, Sanders' demonstrated interest in the derivation of words is mirrored in Erdnase.

Gambling and deception

****(H) ---- Sanders on GAMBLING (poem to Johnson) ----

Sanders writes explicitly about gambling games in a poem to Johnson.

Sanders:
Come, Johnson, cease your naughty ways,
Make simple faro, poker plays
Or roulette e'en, but stop this craze
For playin' the "Shell game."

However, Johnson, when I learn
The shell game played by your concern
Is not the western game I yearn
To see played on the square,
[...]

For reference, the following gambling-oriented terms are used by Sanders (sometimes figuratively) in his various writings: on the square, "make good," quit the game, honorable dealing, palm off, faro, poker, shell game, roulette, cassino (misspelled same way as Erdnase)

****(H) ---- Sanders on MINING/GAMBLING ----

[added 5/2018]

In poems for his classmates Huntington and Hollis, mining and gambling are tightly linked (as they were historically). Huntington left mining to settle down with a family and work in education. Sanders refers to it as having "quit the game," a phrase also referenced by Erdnase. And then Sanders says that Huntington is "STRAIGHT and true."

Erdnase: In most card GAMES ... there is an old adage much quoted that runs, "If suspected, QUIT." [p78]

Sanders:
So, Huntington, you QUIT THE GAME
Our mining engineers HAVE PLAYED ...
How thoughtful, gentle, STRAIGHT and true

Sanders:
As one who knows THE MINING GAME
From primal A to izzard...
He'd brave the cannon's mouth
When he some METAL CHASES.

And here's the kicker: both Sanders and Erdnase explicitly contrast other MORE RESPECTABLE PROFESSIONS (education and stock trading) with the WILD DELIGHTS and SENSATIONS associated with gambling and/or mining.

Sanders: Huntington has placed taboo the WILD DELIGHTS AND EXHILERATING INFLUENCES of the MINING PROFESSION and settled into the more prosaic, even if MORE RESPECTABLE, calling of education. [CR bio]

Erdnase: have impressed the PROFESSIONAL CARD PLAYER with a certain knowledge that his MORE RESPECTED brother of the stock exchange possesses ... Hazard at play carries SENSATIONS that once ENJOYED are rarely forgotten [p10]

The danger of gambling is also described metaphorically. Erdnase writes of how he "bucked the tiger" and lost his money. This is a figure of speech referring to gambling at faro. Sanders uses a very similar image in describing how Hollis, his classmate and fellow mining engineer, would "brave the cannon's mouth" in the context of pursuing of money (metal) in "the mining game." The metaphors visually evoke the perils of the cannon's mouth and the tiger with its huge jaws, and the ferocious roar of both— all in the context of chasing money.

Erdnase: We BUCKED THE TIGER voluntarily, and censure no one for the inevitable result. A self-satisfied unlicked cub with a FAIRLY FAT BANK ROLL was too good a thing to be passed up. [p14]

Sanders: As one who knows THE MINING GAME From primal A to izzard...HE'D BRAVE THE CANNON'S MOUTH When he some METAL CHASES. [CR poem]

**** ---- Sanders on condition of hands ----

[added 5/2018]

Given its relevance to sleight of hand with cards, we would expect Erdnase to mention the condition and other attributes of hands. And that is what we find, both in the text of EATCT and in Marshall Smith's recollections as told to Martin Gardner.

Erdnase: The beginner invariably imagines his HANDS are too small or too large, but the size has little to do with the possibilities of skill. Soft, moderately moist HANDS are best adapted for the purpose. When the CUTICLE is hard and dry, or excessively humid, the difficulties increase. A simple PREPARATION TO SOFTEN the HANDS and good general health usually produce the desired CONDITIONS. Of course dry FINGERS may be moistened, or damp ones dried, but either operation is objectionable. [p24]
Erdnase: We presume that THE LARGER, OR THE LONGER THE HAND, the easier it will be for a beginner to accomplish this shift, but a VERY SMALL HAND can perform the action when the knack is once acquired. [p101]

Smith: His hands were not large. He called my attention to them and I remember well FEELING THEIR SOFTNESS, much softer than any woman’s hands I ever fussed with. He explained how HE TOOK CARE OF THEM and why. Was proud of them.
Smith: I mean he was proud of the job he made on his hands and not proud of his hands.
Smith (via Gardner): Smith recalls his HANDS very vividly. They were the SOFTEST HANDS he’d ever seen. Obviously he had done no heavy work or washed dishes. HANDS WERE SOFT like a woman's. He spoke good deal about how he had to keep them IN CONDITION
Smith (via Gardner): He remembers Andrews showing him some card tricks, and complaining that the cold made his fingers stiff. He remembers Andrews rubbing his hands together to warm them up, and telling him that it was necessary for him to KEEP HIS HANDS IN GOOD CONDITION. He said that he kept them greased.

We would not, however, expect a mining engineer to be as focused on hands, but that is what we find. In Sanders' diaries, he complains about the rheumatism and discomfort he felt from working in the cold ground in mining work. He was concerned about damage to his hands and called wheelbarrows "instruments of torture." And in his writings, he vividly describes various attributes of hands (often with humor and irony). The condition of hands seems to have been a subject of considerable interest to him.

Sanders: He had been engaged in the delightful avocation of underground work, on a "lease," at Bannack, and the CONDITION OF HIS HANDS, then exhibited with amiable pride, bore ample evidence that he knew well the joys of handling the shovel and "polishing the head of a drill"— good, hearty, wholesome work. [CRbio: bemis]
Sanders: Of the days when you worked in the mines; On my life! Then the HORN ON YOUR HANDS was a wonderful sight. [CR poem: bemis]
Sanders: And the bone-smashing GRIP OF YOUR PAW [CR poem]
Sanders: and up would go his HAND, WITH FINGERS popping like a bunch of firecrackers on a Celestial New Year. [CRbio: On "Pop" Starek]
Sanders: a wriggling, sinuous forward movement of the HAND with the INDEX FINGER advanced, much resembling the motion of a snake in crawling. [MHS-vol7]

We list, here, correspondences (from the above and elsewhere) where Sanders and Erdnase employ similar gambling or deception-related terms and topics.

**** ---- Palming off ----

[added 2/2019]

Erdnase uses the phrase "palm off" in its literal sense six times to refer to a particular sleight (palming). Sanders uses the phrase in its idiomatic sense to refer to covertly substituting inferior goods via trickery. There's no proof that Sanders had the literal sense in mind, but it is interesting to consider whether the choice of the phrase was influenced by a background in gambling, magic, and sleight of hand.

Erdnase: Should the performer wish to PALM OFF the selected card [p127]
Sanders: the literary huckster with his second-hand wares, has ... usurped without invitation or consent the most responsible and solemn position which our civilization has created and in which every citizen has an interest, and has PALMED OFF upon us our own alleged history. [MHS-vol2 intro]

The derivation of the idiom "palming off" (from palming in sleight of hand) is described in Dictionary of Phrase and Fable - giving the derivation, source, or origin of common phrases, allusions, and words that have a tale to tell. by E Cobham Brewer. 1870

To palm off wares, tricks, etc, upon the unwary. The allusion is to jugglers, who conceal in the palm of their hand what they pretend to dispose of in some other way. These jugglers were sometimes called palmers.

Note that this source also defines "juggler."
Juggler means a player on a jongleur a sort of hurdy-gurdy. These jugglers accompanied the minstrels and troubadours, to assist them, and added to their musical talents sleight-of-hand, antics, and feats of prowess, to amuse the company assembled. In time the music was dropped as the least attractive, and tricks became the staple of these wandering performers.

A similar explanation was given in 1924. [Jean Newton in Evening Star. Washington DC. Nov 27 1924]

We are all familiar with this bit of slang which is frequently used in everyday speech to signify deception, whether it is inferior material that is being "palmed off" or a false excuse. The phrase comes to us from the parlance of the showman, the referece being originally to the juggler or "magician" who causes an article to disappear and then suddenly produces it in the palm of his hand. The "magician's" trade is an old one, and "palming off" is no upstart in the history of language. As far back as the early seventeenth century Dryden said: "you may palm upon us new for old."

Additional discussion of the etymology, use, and significance of "palm off" can be found in the Erdnase thread in the Genii Forum. [GForum]

**** ---- on the square [gambling slang] ----

Erdnase: it is generally dealt ON THE SQUARE in gambling rooms that are run openly [p18]
Sanders: Is not the western game I yearn To see played ON THE SQUARE, [CR poem]

See Full poem for context

**** ---- quit the game [gambling slang] ----

Erdnase: In most card GAMES ... there is an old adage much quoted that runs, "If suspected, QUIT." [p78]
Sanders: so, Huntington, you QUIT THE GAME our mining engineers have played, [CR poem]

See Full poem for context

---- honorable game/dealing ----

Erdnase: the ancient and HONORABLE GAME whose title furnishes the headline for this paragraph. [p117]
Sanders: the precepts towards HONORABLE DEALING and fair living,....

---- Many more thematic variants on honesty theme. An example. ----
Sanders: and therefore mining was given up for the work of teaching the young idea how to shoot, to so bend the young shoot (as we understand it) as to incline the tree towards an UPRIGHT EXISTENCE.

---- straight [as "honest"] ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: and the game is sometimes dealt with STRAIGHT cards. [p118]
Sanders: how thoughtful, gentle, STRAIGHT and true [CR poem]
Sanders: and well we know, dear pal of old, how STRAIGHT you are and true [CR poem]

****(H) ---- culled ... fairly well ----

In this example, a distinctive word ("cull") is used in the same sentence as the collocation "fairly well." It is also possible that Sanders' choice of the word "cull" was influenced by its gambling connotations.

Erdnase: These examples of CULLING, if FAIRLY WELL executed. [p81]
Sanders: FAIRLY WELL filled with data CULLED in a measure from geologic reports... [ML1913]

**** ---- jog [uncommon word, denoting a gambling sleight in Erdnase] ----

Erdnase: When the blind shuffles with the coincident JOG and break -- [p126] 190 other occurrences
Sanders: in this way the JOG can be avoided [L1-1906]

**** ----- shrewd/keen/cunning/machiavellian -----

[added 5/2018]
---- devising {shrewd | keen | cunning | machiavellian} {strategm | meeting problems}
Erdnase: This CUNNING and absolutely unfathomable STRATAGEM must have been DEVISED by an individual of truly MACHIAVELLIAN SUBTLETY.
Sanders: and their SHREWD KEENNESS IN DEVISING WAYS to MEET THE PROBLEMS presented

---- shrewd
Erdnase: We don't think many SHREWD players could be so imposed upon
Sanders: and their SHREWD keenness in devising ways to meet the problems presented

**** ----- furtive glance ----

[added 11/2018]
Erdnase: the operator might GLANCE AT IT WITHOUT BEING NOTICED [p31]
Erdnase: Now the operator LOOKS COVERTLY into the eyes of the spectator [p168]
Sanders: How with FURTIVE SIDE-GLANCE through the tail of the eye [CR poem]

Derivation of linguistic terms

Both Sanders and Erdnase show substantial interest in the derivation, definitions, and application of words and names. This includes calling attention to cases when a word is commonly misused or a misnomer.

****(H) ---- Sanders and Erdnase on the derivation of linguistic terms ----

[updated 1/2019]

While librarian for the Historical Society of Montana, Sanders wrote an in-depth article on the derivation of the name Montana. And in his Columbia class reunion bios, he explicates the sources of the nicknames of his classmates. In addition, his mining articles also describe the derivation of terminology.

Sanders: the WORD is an adjective form that is DERIVED from the noun mount or mountain. [MHS-vol7]
Sanders: making their way over to the headwaters of the Musselshell river, SO NAMED because of the shells that are to be found along its banks. [MHS-vol7]
Sanders: Of Starek we remember the CAUSE which led to the NICKNAME by which he was known to us all, that of "Pop" Starek. [CR bio]
Sanders: ERNEST JULIUS HYACINTH AMY...a name which served the double use of his COGNOMEN and our own mark of affection, for he was never known to us by his FRONT NAME or any of them.
Sanders: This DESIGNATION is now GENERALLY APPLIED to the plates of both the vertical and inclined shafts, although it is probable that the NAME ORIGINATED in connection with the timbering of the latter ...and this SIGNIFICANCE of the TERM was finally EXTENDED TO comprehend the similar longer plates of vertical shafts as well. [MT]
Sanders: An adit, USUALLY MISCALLED tunnel throughout the West [MT]
Sanders: The Shoshone Indians ... were called the Gens du Serpent, a NAME SIGNIFICANT of the feelings entertained for that tribe.... [MHS-vol7]
Sanders: According to Mrs. Ann Clark Thruston Farrar, and a niece of Captain William Clark ... the final "e" was used or omitted at the pleasure of the writer. The NAME is frequently, and probably the MORE CORRECTLY, SPELLED without it... A SIMILAR MUTATION IN THE SPELLING OF NAMES is illustrated in many other instances beside this. — W. E. S. [MHS-vol2 footnote]

Erdnase displays a similar interest in the derivation and definitions of names and other terms. He mentions the likely source of the term "cold deck" and recognizes that the standard name of a sleight ("back palm") is actually a misnomer. He also takes time to describe the origins of names that he, himself, has invented.

Erdnase: The "Cold Deck" ... The NAME is probably DERIVED from the fact that the deck must await its opportunity long enough to contract a chill in the interim. [p18]
Erdnase: The Back Palm.-- We are afraid the above title is a MISNOMER.
Erdnase:The Longitudinal Shift.-- This shift, for which we have to thank no one, is GIVEN A VERY LONG NAME ... [p135]
Erdnase: The S. W. E. Shift. We have not DUBBED the following process with OUR INITIALS because we wish to appear "big on the bills," but merely to GIVE IT A NAME. [p134]
Erdnase: We USE THE WORD "honestly" IN THE SENSE that it MAY BE APPLIED to qualify any procedure in a game of chance [p117]

Their interest in origins applies not only to words but to methods.

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: methods following were ORIGINATED by us, and we believe [p25]
Erdnase: we must confess to some satisfaction in having ORIGINATED what we believe to be... [p134-135]
Erdnase: This IS KNOWN to conjurers AS the "Charlies Pass," and we presume WAS INVENTED by the famous magician of that name. [p128]
Sanders: square-set system of timbering was ORIGINATED to meet the needs of the situation
Sanders: are but the application of OLD METHODS to present use, while other systems are distinctly modern, both in ORIGIN and application.

Both use similar word choice and phrasing in introducing new terminology

---- might (well) be termed ----

Erdnase: This example MIGHT WELL BE TERMED a fancy cull [p82]
Sanders: from the extraction of ores with WHAT MIGHT BE TERMED open blocks...
Sanders: by WHAT MIGHT BE TERMED an enclosing and protecting shield

... TERMED ...
Erdnase: Many mechanical contrivances TERMED "hold outs" have been invented. [p15]
Erdnase: We should mention that a shift is TERMED by the conjurer a "pass." [p128]

---- known as ----

Erdnase: Prepared cards KNOWN AS "Strippers"... [p17]
Erdnase: The winnings KNOWN AS "pretty money," [p10]
Erdnase: This IS KNOWN to conjurers AS the "Charlies Pass," [p128]
Sanders: by what is KNOWN AS the single-piece...
Sanders: while the square pieces are KNOWN AS "girts"

Erdnase: some antiquated moss-covered ruses AS WELL KNOWN AS nursery rhymes [p13]

☛ See also combination of letters and the section on Wordplay.

Archaelogy, mining, and history

****(H) ---- Erdnase on MINING and ARCHAEOLOGY (from "The Divining Rod") ----

The Divining Rod represents a remarkable confluence of Sanders' background and interests (mining and cultural preservation) into a single card trick.

Erdnase's patter centers on the conceit of prospecting for gold. This is something Sanders did in real life.

Erdnase: I have mapped out a plan of experiment and study that will in time, I trust, enable me to give once more to the world complete and scientific data for positively ascertaining the immediate whereabouts of such METALS AS GOLD, SILVER OR COPPER by a process as simple as the waving of a willow wand over the PROSPECTED AREA. [p175]

Both Erdnase and Sanders describe the search for hidden underground deposits.

Erdnase: DIVINING THE PRESENCE of water or metals that lay HIDDEN far under the ground [p175]
Sanders: except in the case of PROSPECTING HIDDEN or BLIND deposits

In the same trick, Erdnase refers to ARCHAEOLOGY and bemoans the WONDERFUL ARTS from ancient times that are now LOST. Sanders, in the 1890s, was Librarian for the Historical Society of Montana and actively worked to preserve the "archaeology" and its "wonderfully interesting" oral history and relics among those that are already "irretrievably lost."

Erdnase: It is a fact well known to ARCHAEOLOGISTS that many very WONDERFUL ARTS which were POSSESSED by the ANCIENTS have, through the COURSE OF AGES, been completely LOST to MODERN CIVILIZATION. [p175]
Sanders: the various objects which might serve to enlighten us upon the ARCHAEOLOGY and Ethnology of the Northwest; and such narratives and RELICS as would be of future interest which deal with the lives and works of the EARLY DWELLERS and travellers in this section or tend to illustrate some incident IN HISTORY... What a vast mass of WONDERFULLY interesting and valuable material might be gathered. Already much from our PAST that we SHOULD POSSESS is IRRETRIEVABLY LOST to us [MHS-lib]

And throughout their writing, both invoke the term "ancient" as almost a talisman.

Erdnase: without giving some consideration to the ANCIENT and honorable game [p117]
Erdnase: It is a fact well known to archaeologists that many very wonderful arts which were possessed by the ANCIENTS have, through the course of ages, been completely lost to modern civilization. [p175]
Erdnase: The saying is as true as it is ANCIENT, and [p185]
Sanders: it is difficult to determine the exact limits of what in ANCIENT times were regarded as...
Sanders: where i see the ANCIENT affection burn
Sanders: in fellowship of ANCIENT days to meet each gladsome year





7) Miscellaneous linguistic constructions

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

In addition to thematic and topical linguistic correspondences, there are a number of more neutral linguistic constructs and idioms that show up in both writers.

**** ---- it does not matter/detract in the least ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: IT DOES NOT matter IN THE LEAST when performing [p179]
Sanders:while IT DOES NOT detract IN THE LEAST from the column. [SMR]

Erdnase: without IN THE LEAST suspecting the choice is influenced in [p142]
Sanders: the most powerful detonator known that is IN THE LEAST, safe to handle. [SMR]

**** ---- parallelism: the greater the X, the greater the Y ---

Erdnase: THE GREATER THE emergency, or THE GREATER THE stakes, THE GREATER THE nerve required. [p23]
Erdnase: though of course THE GREATER the number, THE MORE probability of the dealer noticing the diminished condition of the deck [p115]
Erdnase: In all card entertainments THE MORE palaver THE MORE the interest is excited [p174]
Sanders: THE GREATER THE diameter THE GREATER THE strength of the timber.

---- Examples of other parallel comparative constructions ----
Erdnase: THE LARGER, or THE LONGER the hand, THE EASIER it will be for a beginner to accomplish this shift [p101]
Erdnase: THE MORE at a time THE SIMPLER to run up more desired [p77] cards.
Erdnase: THE MORE PLAYERS THE MERRIER
Erdnase: THE MORE THE methods for blind shuffling are varied THE GREATER ARE the probabilities of convincing the company that the cards are genuinely mixed [p164]
Erdnase:THE LESS the company knows about the dexterity of the performer, THE BETTER it answers his purpose. [p127-128]
Sanders: when the material run through IS RICH a LONGER head with a SHORTER tail is taken, where POOR a SHORTER head with a LONGER tail. [SMR]

Note: "the greater the" pattern gleaned from from Carlo Morpurgo's overlapping sequences

☛ See also litanies

**** ---- purpose is sufficiently answered (and variants) ---

[updated 5/2018]
Erdnase: His PURPOSE in that respect IS SUFFICIENTLY ANSWERED by keeping the desired cards... [p20]
Erdnase: Two or three coups in the course of an evening... are quite SUFFICIENT TO ANSWER ALL PURPOSES. [p19]
Sanders: the required information ... IS SUFFICIENTLY ANSWERED in and by the workings of adjoining property [MT]
Sanders: iron bars and straps (iron) WHICH ANSWER TO THE SAME PURPOSE as the iron frame. [SMR]
Sanders: It is probable that the single-shanked bracket would be SUFFICIENT FOR ALL PURPOSES [1906L2]

Note: "is sufficiently answered" pattern gleaned from from Carlo Morpurgo's overlapping sequences

---- the nature of ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: company is not yet informed of THE NATURE OF the trick [p180]
Sanders: The timbering of shafts varies according to THE NATURE OF the ground [MT]
Sanders: as THE NATURE OF the ground requires [MT]
Sanders: depending upon THE NATURE & EXTENT OF the damage done. [SMR]
Sanders: and the bank partakes more of THE NATURE OF a wall [MTE]

---- nothing more than ----

Erdnase: knowing players require NOTHING MORE THAN a bare suspicion of skill to [p24]
Sanders: a method of timbering ... is NOTHING MORE THAN the crib of the flat deposits

---- many another ----

Erdnase: and the reputation is liable to precede him in MANY ANOTHER. [p23]
Sanders: among files containing MANY ANOTHER mining report that is less picturesque, less unique. [ML1913]
Sanders: as sweet and handsome as MANY ANOTHER [CR bio]

---- would not do | do well to | it is well to ----

[added 6/2018]
Erdnase: Of course, IT WOULD NOT DO TO make up the desired cards from [p79]
Sanders: he WOULD DO WELL TO soliloquize with Burns [CR bio]

Erdnase: IT IS WELL TO insist that but one card must be moved at a time. [p188]
Sanders: IT IS WELL TO leave the tops undisturbed
Sanders: in this classification IT IS WELL TO assume as of the normal type those rocks that possess...

---- pay/repay for labor ----

[added 3/2019]
Erdnase: There is no branch of conjuring that so fully REPAYS THE AMATEUR FOR HIS LABOR and study as sleight-of-hand with [p125]
Sanders: at the homage which is PAID THEM FOR LABOR which on retrospection their modesty even will not permit them to belittle. [mhs-vol2 intro]

---- once upon a time ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: but we regret the truth of the confession that ONCE UPON A TIME we were, and we marveled greatly and also sorrowed, over a continuous and very protracted run of hard luck [p116]
Sanders: ONCE UPON A TIME, as all good fairy tales begin, callow, bashful and hopeful youths met together

---- summing up ----

Erdnase: an adversary enjoying ordinary luck, will find IN SUMMING UP his points [p116]
Sanders: the advantages of this construction ... MAY BE SUMMED UP as follows [L2-1906]

---- the greater NOUN ----

Erdnase: seen that the old-fashioned or hand shuffle gives THE GREATER POSSIBILITIES [p20]
Sanders: timber furnishes THE GREATER PART of the artificial supports...

---- as an excuse ----

[new 3/2019]
Erdnase: the writer uses no sophistry AS AN EXCUSE for its existence. [p3]
Sanders: he explains this integration or accretion of good hoss-sense AS AN EXCUSE for his lapse from...

---- to any extent ----

[new 3/2019]
Erdnase: the cards himself, shuffles TO ANY EXTENT, and returns deck [p197]
Sanders: and the process is carried on TO ANY EXTENT by repetition

Various linguistic constructions using "but" (and related)

---- with but one/few reservation/exceptions ... ["but" meaning "only"] ----

Erdnase: WITH BUT ONE RESERVATION, that he has the price
sanders: WITH BUT FEW EXCEPTIONS [MHS-lib]

---- there is but AMOUNT ... ["but" meaning "only"] ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: there is BUT ONE pleasure in life greater [p9]
Erdnase: there are BUT TWO OR THREE players in a game [p111]
Sanders: ARE BUT FEW that rest upon our shelves. [MHS-lib]
Sanders: there now remain in the possession of the society BUT 50 copies [MHS-lib]

Erdnase: THERE BEING BUT THIRTEEN names to commit, [p179]
Sanders: THERE BEING TWO men at each of the five drills... [SMR]

Sanders: Circular shafts are BUT LITTLE employed in America [L1-1906]
Sanders: they blasted BUT LITTLE stronger than if for solid rock [SMR]

Erdnase: we will describe BUT THREE which we consider at all practicable [p95]
Sanders: The stull IS BUT THE adaptation of the prop
Sanders: which IS BUT THE application of the post [MT]

[pointed out by Bill Mullins in Genii Forum]

---- some QUANTITY noun ----

Erdnase: SOME LITTLE PRACTICE must be put in to acquire the knack [p159]
Erdnase: show SOME SLIGHT embarrassment [p202]
Sanders: after SOME FOUR YEARS this opened up to the ... [CRbio body]
Sanders: on an average SOME FOUR DRILLS are sharpened [SMR]

---- but for/in ----

Erdnase: I have impressed you somewhat with the intelligence and agility the Jacks possess in themselves, BUT FOR fear you may fancy that I have anything to do with their performance [p192]
Erdnase: and the palmed cards remain in the dealer's possession BUT FOR the moment. [p111]
Sanders: the facts here narrated were related to me by my father, BUT FOR the reason that the notes thereon have been misplaced and cannot be found I am compelled... [MHS-vol7]
Sanders:will soon be known BUT IN the more fortunate museums

---- all but ----

Erdnase: A little practice enables the right hand to release ALL BUT the bottom card with ease and accuracy. [p72]
Sanders: although in ALL BUT minor points the statements are correct. [MHS-vol7]

**** ---- so arranged ----

Erdnase: The deck SO ARRANGED makes every thirteenth card the same value [p179]
Sanders: shafts are of two kinds, one being SO ARRANGED that the ore cars

---- other verbs using same "so" verb passive construction ----
erdnase: as long as the originators are SO DISPOSED.
erdnase: Four of a Kind will be found SO REMOVED. It is very simple to
erdnase: players could be SO IMPOSED UPON, but we regret the truth
Sanders: by an amount equal to the sections a/ y' SO REMOVED.
Sanders: and when SO HELD are blocked and wedged firmly in place
Sanders: the parts of which... are SO FITTED together at the joints as to form a ...
Sanders: the piece is SO BEVELED that this mitered face will coincide
Sanders: the timbers are SO CUT that the splice will coincide with the length-
Sanders: the parts being SO FRAMED that the set may be placed in position
Sanders: should be SO AFFLICTED [CR bio]
Sanders: and in his high place he has since SO BORNE himself that he has made us proud of him [CR bio]
Sanders: overcome by diagonal spiling SO PLACED as to cover these openings,
Sanders: The "lift-Pump" at the bottom of the shaft is SO PLACED for various reasons
Sanders: making their way over to the headwaters of the Musselshell river, SO NAMED because of the shells that are to be found along its banks. [MHS-vol7]
Sanders: it must, however, be SO CONSTRUCTED to withstand the impact of... [ORE]

---- TRANSITIVE-VERB no DIRECT-OBJECT ----

Erdnase: it will TAKE NO PART at all in the action. [p101] (two other "take no part")
Erdnase: the writer USES NO SOPHISTRY as an excuse for its existence [p3]
Erdnase: The mode of shuffling ... INCITES NO NOTICE [p161]
Sanders: author of this monograph has been able to DISCOVER NO definite or sufficient REASON [MHS-vol7]
Sanders: the framing of the sets INVOLVES NO small ITEM of outlay.
Sanders: was POSSESSED IN NO small DEGREE by victorious Rome. [MHS-vol7]
Sanders: the society MAKES NO PRETENCE of publishing a connected account of the series [MHS-lib]

Others by Erdnase: [Pattern pointed out by Bill Mullins in Genii Forum]

☛ See also uses no sophistry

---- "THE" adj noun [reification by using the definite article]----

In these examples, the definite article ("the") and an adjective are used to essentially define a type or category on the fly. e.g. "The observant dealer" is not talking about a specific dealer but a class of dealers.

Erdnase: the principal difference between the professional gambler and THE OCCASIONAL gambler [p10]
Sanders: require little support other than that furnished by THE OCCASIONAL pillar of ground

Erdnase: and mentally urge THE REQUIRED action [p196]
Erdnase: the REQUIRED number [p63]
Sanders: each scantling is bored at THE REQUIRED intervals
Sanders: it (the machine) is directed in THE REQUIRED direction and there fastened... [SMR]
Sanders: THE REQUIRED INFORMATION as to orebodies beneath the surface of a mining claim [MT]

Erdnase: THE AVERAGE card player [p21]
Erdnase: THE AVERAGE professional who is successful at his own game [p10]
Erdnase: THE AVERAGE luck [p9]
Sanders: THE AVERAGE mining engineer

Others (unmatched)...
Erdnase: THE OBSERVANT DEALER is thus enabled to put in his crimp high
Erdnase: THE EXPERT PROFESSIONAL disdains their assistance.
Erdnase: to the PROFESSIONAL PLAYER
Erdnase: THE CLEVER PROFESSIONAL who values his reputation
Erdnase: THE RESOURCEFUL PROFESSIONAL failing to improve the method changes the moment
Erdnase: THE FINISHED CARD-TABLE EXPERT will experience little or ...
Erdnase: THE FINISHED CARD EXPERT CONSIDERS nothing too trivial that in any way contributes
Erdnase: but THE FINISHED PERFORMER will use the right hand only as a cover
Erdnase: the FAMILY deck
Sanders: the fascinating existence of THE HONEST MINER and THE PRINCELY SMELTERMAN
Sanders: the fascinating existence of THE SUCCESSFUL OPERATOR

☛ See also "the required"

Various connectives

---- nowise ----

[added 5/2018]

The uncommon word "nowise" is used in the context of some explanation/description.

Erdnase: REVELATIONS are calmly dismissed with the ASSERTION that this or that artifice is employed; in NOWISE attempting to EXPLAIN the process or give the detail of the action mentioned. [p14]
Sanders: are too insignificant for MENTION in this connection, while in other points the DESCRIPTION of the surrounding region in NO WISE tallies therewith. [MHS-vol7]

---- in either event ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: IN EITHER EVENT the answer to the first question discloses the identity of the thought card. [p195]
Erdnase: IN EITHER EVENT he has only thirteen cards to run through before finding one of the same value [p181]
Sanders: IN EITHER EVENT it is necessary to clear it out before it can be charged. [SMR]

---- needless to say [common idiom] ----

Erdnase: "IT IS NEEDLESS TO SAY THAT I do not know which cards were selected," (in patter) [p201]
Sanders: IT IS NEEDLESS TO SAY THAT exactness in the fitting together...

---- so far as ----

Erdnase: but SO FAR AS we can learn from the exhibitions and literature of conjurers
Sanders: except SO FAR AS such unused space is advantageous [L1-1906]

---- so as to ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: SO AS TO preclude the possibility of the schemer being discovered [p116]
Sanders: the drill is driven slowly SO AS TO decrease this vibration [SMR]

---- In this way xx can ... ----

Erdnase: IN THIS WAY he CAN get the under cards by bottom dealing. [p110]
Sanders: IN THIS WAY the jog CAN be avoided [L1-1906]

---- it would seem ----

Erdnase: IT WOULD SEEM very awkward indeed [p56]
Sanders: which IT WOULD SEEM is likely to come into general use
Sanders: so as to allow more spring but THIS IT WOULD SEEM must weaken the timbers. [SMR]

--- but/and...in any case ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: BUT IN ANY CASE it would not matter much [p95]
Sanders: AND it is well IN ANY CASE to leave them in place for several sets from the bottom of the shaft [MT]

---- in other words ----

[added /2018]
Erdnase: IN OTHER WORDS, to run one and throw balance on top [p81]
Sanders: IN OTHER WORDS the texture of the materials of construction, becomes possessed of sufficient strength

---- i trust ... able/enable ----

Erdnase: I have mapped out a plan of experiment and study that WILL in time, I TRUST, ENABLE me... [p175]
Sanders: However, I TRUST I SHALL BE ABLE so to mix the joyous with the serious as to yield a proper "blend" suited to every palate

---- the object of X is Y ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: THE OBJECT OF a shift is well known, and especially... [p96]
Erdnase: THE OBJECTS OF blind shuffling are to retain a top stock... [p29]
Sanders: THE OBJECT OF this table is to concentrate low grade material to such a degree that it will pay to smelt and handle it. [SMR]

---- save that ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: the player has no greater advantage SAVE THAT he knows enough not to bet. [p120]
Sanders: in all respects SAVE THAT of immediate delivery of the chute, the most satisfactory

---- (by the fact that | and in fact) ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: seen BY THE FACT THAT it is seldom or never
Sanders: it is counterbalanced, however, BY THE FACT THAT when ...

---- and in fact
Erdnase: AND IN FACT if the packets can be held under perfect control [p163]
Sanders: Some, AND IN FACT the larger number of our Mining Engineers, have forsaken... [CR bio]

---- on the subject ----

Erdnase: While ON THE SUBJECT OF cuts, [p48]
Sanders: a complete treatise ON THE SUBJECT,

Erdnase: our treatment OF THE SUBJECT [p97]
Sanders: its bearing UPON THIS SUBJECT the following letter...
Sanders: whose opinions ON THIS SUBJECT are entitled to the utmost attention [MHS-vol7]





8) Miscellaneous word choice

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

This section includes unusual or idiosyncratic word choices (e.g. dalliance, longitudinal, unconcern, etc). In some cases, we select examples when an unusual or secondary word sense is used (e.g. when "neighbor" is used figuratively or "crowding" is used as an adjective). As with the other correspondences we have seen, the examples in this section taken individually don't necessarily prove a common author, but in the aggregate they add to the sense of a shared linguistic palette.

Note that not all unusual words will be listed below. For example, words related to themes or topics highlighted in other sections are included in those sections. Also, in many cases, a word choice invokes a topic that strongly suggests biographical elements. See crossover topics for examples of those.

****(H) ---- dalliance ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: If DALLIANCE with the deck is allowed [p60]
Erdnase: when the company will stand for DALLIANCE at all [p62]
Sanders: to tread the primrose paths of DALLIANCE and joyance. [CR bio]

Dalliance is an uncommon word used by both writers. Dalliance is defined as: "Frivolous spending of time; dawdling: passed the summer in idle dalliance."

It also has some interesting biographical connotations with Sanders. We know that Sanders enjoyed spending time in his home in Helena "reading," "writing," and "loafing." He poetically titled the first section in his summer mining school memoir as "Sinking and Drifting with Machines." And in one of his college reunion poems he writes "I'd rather lie upon my back and gaze up to the sky." These all evoke the feeling of passing the summer on the primrose paths of idle dalliance.

****---- distinctive/unusual UN-words ----

Erdnase: with the sublimest UNCONCERN [p10]
Sanders: with UNWHISPERED request that tears and other paraphernalia be reserved for future occasion.

[from Leonard Hevia]

☛ See also without inconvenience

**** ----- coups ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: Two or three COUPS in the course of an evening will not flush the quarry [p19]
Sanders: In fact, we're in a precious mess through all their COUPS des main [CR poem]

**** ---- longitudinal/crosswise/coincident/uppermost [technical/engineering-oriented terms] ----

[updated 9/2018]

Erdnase: The LONGITUDINAL Shift [p130]
Sanders: and their designations marked within the main LONGITUDINAL workings
Sanders: distance pieces, where necessary, retain the sets in their proper relative positions, LONGITUDINALLY;

Erdnase: but as the deck is held CROSSWISE it is much more rapid. [p135]
Erdnase: CROSSWISE, in the customary manner for the hand shuffle. [p159]
Sanders: those CROSSWISE lines which locate and outline the shapes of the joints

Erdnase: When the blind shuffles with the COINCIDENT jog and break [p126]
Erdnase: a movement appearing as COINCIDENT card table routine [p96]
Sanders: within the bin, approximately COINCIDENT with or at a slightly steeper inclination

Erdnase: the Ten being UPPERMOST
Erdnase: spectator to hold it in the hand that happens to be UPPERMOST.
Sanders: the one that will be the top or UPPERMOST side of the timber..

---- crowding [adjectival/verbal form] ----

[new 11/2018]
Erdnase: who have been least CROWDING and therefore more deserving [p173]
Sanders: and have followed with admiration and pride their CROWDING labors through nearly half a century
Sanders: if indeed it does not CROWD, the excavation of the working.

---- interwoven ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: so that the left hand holds several cards that are not INTERWOVEN at the bottom [p162]
Sanders: so closely INTERWOVEN as to make their undergraduate lives warp and woof of the same fabric

---- induce ----

[added 2/2019]
Erdnase: the mere suspicion of skill should at once INDUCE symptoms of cold feet [p12]
Sanders: could the few be INDUCED to place in permanent form the experiences of their pioneer life

---- terrific [used in ironic manner] ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: If TERRIFIC denunciation of erstwhile associates, and a diatribe on the awful consequences of gambling are a criterion of ability [p13]
Sanders: Now, think with what TERRIFIC aches the brain would have to do that for its line invention takes to work out ideas new. [CR poem]

---- figurative or idiomatic use of neighbor/prince/carry----

[updated 5/2018]

Erdnase: this probability when his right-hand NEIGHBOR is not an ally. [p24]
Sanders: is to pound on the NEIGHBORING rock where it wears to no advantage. [SMR]

Erdnase: a clever dealer can give the house a percentage that would IMPOVERISH A PRINCE. [p18]
Sanders: We were fed FIT FOR PRINCES (?) stuffed with veal without the veal [DIARIES]
Sanders: the fascinating existence of the honest miner and the PRINCELY smelterman [CR bio]

Erdnase: and some one says, "CARRY THE CUT," he will, of course, do so [p110]
Sanders: and at this time Mr Ashley was able to CARRY THE NAME through [L-1896]

---- word cluster: marked/figures/color ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: Each card is MARKED at both ends, so as to be read in any position. The peculiarity of the FIGURES or design across the end is first closely considered, and twelve fairly distinct points, or dots or dashes, are noted and located. Then the four Aces are laid out, and with a fine pen the first point located is shortened barely enough to notice. The point is white and the background RED OR BLUE, the COLOR of the ink used. [p16]
Sanders: however MARKED and COLORED may be the FIGURES shaped in the weaving. [CR bio]

Other miscellaneous word choices

---- intimate (verb)

[new 3/2019]
Erdnase: But, as INTIMATED, to retain the top stock in the riffle is the exception. [p36]
Sanders: he INTIMATES his connection with certain enterprises following vigorous terms

---- feverish ----

[new 3/2019]
Erdnase: but the percentage of people in this FEVERISH nation who would not enjoy winning one is very small [p9]
Sanders: And he'd bless you, my lad, while he FEV'RISHLY wrote [CR poem]

---- manifest ----

[new 11/2018]
Erdnase: an original athletic tendency that was early MANIFESTED by them [p191]
Sanders: The latter averment is MANIFESTLY wrong to our present knowledge [MHS-vol7]

---- countenance [Note: different senses for verb/noun] ----

Erdnase: Where the civil authorities COUNTENANCE these institutions [p11]]
Sanders: ever at the front to give the light of his COUNTENANCE [CR bio]
Sanders: our friend Page was removing from his COUNTENANCE a week's ragged growth of whiskers [CR bio]

---- indifferent(ly) ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: but two INDIFFERENT cards are added. [p65]
Sanders: An embankment, per se, is constructed of INDIFFERENTLY sized materials heaped together to form a bank or mound

---- assume [as "adopt"] ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: The positions the hands ASSUME are taken quite naturally in squaring up the cards [p85]
Sanders: an adjective may ASSUME the attributes of a noun
Sanders: upon ASSUMING the duties of this office on November 6th, 1895, the Librarian was confronted by... [MHS-lib]

---- decided(ly) good/bad ----

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: The first method is DECIDEDLY the BETTER, as it gives
Sanders: and here there would be a DECIDED WASTE of force shown by the crushing of the rock [SMR]

---- fitting(ly) [i.e. as appropriate/commensurate] ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: palm, which is MOST FITTING for a discard, and especially the [p107]
Erdnase: and we may FITTINGLY select the four Queens as representing [p172]
Sanders: gives FITTING evidence of the hard work that he has accomplished.... [CR bio]
Sanders: make such donations to its collections as they SEE FIT [MHS-lib]

---- principal ----

Erdnase: understanding of the exact manner in which it is performed will avoid the PRINCIPAL difficulties. [p52]
Sanders: the victim and PRINCIPAL actor in the comedy has found fame... [CR bio]
Sanders: the PRINCIPAL screens were in each of the four ends of the arms [SMR]





9) Wordplay

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

a) Scare quotes ****

Scare quotes are quotation marks a writer places around a word or phrase to signal that they are using it in a non-standard, ironic, or otherwise special sense [Wikipedia]. Both writers use them extensively.

Erdnase Sanders:

b) Parenthetical punctuation ****(H)

Both Sanders and Erdnase use parentheses around individual letters/characters, to interject doubt:

Erdnase: careless (?) dealer
Erdnase: when his error (?)
Erdnase: cant of reformed (?) gamblers
Sanders: innate and in(co)herent modesty
Sanders: We were fed fit for princes (?) stuffed with veal without the veal [DIARIES]
Sanders: I am becoming quite a professional (?) cuisiner [DIARIES]

c) Speech patterns/accents ****(H)

Both Sanders and Erdnase mimic dialectical speech, accents, and various colloquialisms.

Erdnase:
A colored attendant of a club-room, overhearing a discussion about running up two hands at poker, ventured the following interpolation: Don't trouble 'bout no two han's, Boss. Get yo' own han'. De suckah, he'll get a han' all right, suah!

Sanders

"Expect a poem," now ye do! Consarn yer blawsted nerve
(The only fun about it is that you too have to serve).
Here, I must give the wheels a turn, unwind the bloomin' coil,
Knock off a yard or two of rhyme and burn the midnight oil;
And mewed up here, like mewing Tom, while midnight hours enthuse,
Amuse the using miners with the music of my muse,
With dithyrambic runctions and blanked pentameter verse,
Rambunctious hexameter frills, each than the other worse,
Im memory of other days, in rhyme that's bold and free
I'll offer here the best I have to mon cherez freres d'amie;
I'll give a poem, sure I will, to curl your fringe of hair
And make you wish you ne'er had sent that tellygraft, I swear!

It sufficeth to say that only the innate and in(co)herent modesty of the objective subject of this "story of a life" prevents the Class Historian (officially when writing of Billy Sanders) from dealing in higher superlatives than these hereinafter detailed, specified and contained, to wit: lie air young an' beautifullest an' fair; he hez carroty face an' a freckled hair; he seems pure an' nobil ez he kin be but, nixkumarouse, Bill, yer kaint fule me ! He hez wondrous grace in hiz nether pegs, when he pir-hoo-etts on hiz rear hind legs: an' he thinks he's sum with hiz hullaballoo; but he kaint fule me know him throo an' throo! He hez tears in hiz eyes when he talks uv him; what he sez uv him, sure it ain't so slim; but 1 sez ter him, with hiz reinekaboo, naow yer kaint fule meso yer jess gaow tew ! An' ter h'ar him talk uv ther pace he's set; an' uv what he's done, fer he's braggin' yet; what a bad man he, an' so Woolly! Gee! but I know yer, Bill, an' yer kaint fule me!

---- Sanders was very sensitive to speech patterns and word sounds and even discusses them explicitly. ----

Sanders: his style of RAPID-FIRE DICTION in the lecture room was effective; for once he had started upon a sentence, no convulsion of nature, fall of constellations or wreck of worlds could daunt or stop him until his say was said; and sometimes in phrase so warped and convoluted that no formula of mathematics outside of the fourth dimension could establish its sinuosities. [CR bio]
Sanders:It is a sightly and simple name, to the PRONUNCIATION of which the comparatively numerous VOWELS that go to make up the word bring forth a liquid richness, a MUSICAL RHYTHM and a RESONANT FLOW OF SOUND that is delightful. [MHS-vol7]

d) Alliteration ****

This section lists instances where Sanders and Erdnase use alliteration.

Erdnase: CONGENIAL COTERIE
Erdnase: FRIEND or FOE
Erdnase: PASSION for PLAY
Erdnase: PRETENSIONS of PIETY
Erdnase: PURIFIED PRODIGALS
Erdnase: PRESUMPTUOUS PLEBEIANS [p188]
Erdnase: their former WILES and WICKEDNESS

Sanders: of all the BOLD, BAD men and TOUGHEST of TOUGH characters [CR bio]
Sanders: with BUMPERS BRIMMING over [CR poem]
Sanders: COMPANIONABLE COMRADE [CR bio]
Sanders: CONVERTERS CONVERT [CR poem]
Sanders: DARED the FOE DEFY; Aye! FACE to FACE with DEATH [on D and F] [MHS-vol7 poem.]
Sanders: on the DISH WE WOULD DINE [CR poem]
Sanders: DOLEFULLY DECREPIT [CR bio]
Sanders: FESTIVE and FROLICSOME [CRpeom]
Sanders: FOUND FAME and WORTHILY WON his WAY [CR bio]
Sanders: FIERCE and FELL [MHS-vol7 poem]
Sanders: FLAME FIERCE [CR poem]
Sanders: FROWNING FATES [MHS-vol7 poem]
Sanders: HEALTH and HAPPINESS [CR poem]
Sanders: A HEALTH to HOLLIS [CR poem]
Sanders: HUMBLE HISTORIAN [CR bio]
Sanders: ALaddin's LEGENDARY LAMP [MHS-vol7]
Sanders: the LIVID LIGHTNINGS fLashed [MHS-vol7 poem]
Sanders: MERRY MONTH of MAY [CR bio]
Sanders: MILD-MANNERED [CR bio]
Sanders: MUCH ADMIRED the MANLINESS of the MAN
Sanders: aMUSE the MUSING MINERS with the MUSIC of MY MUSE [CR poem]
Sanders: MIGHT MAN at the ore [CR poem]
Sanders: PRIMROSE PATH [CR bio]
Sanders: POSITIVE, PROBABLE, and POSSIBLE ore reserves [ML]
Sanders: when thus PLACED the PASSAGE PRESENTS a PLEASING aPPearance.
Sanders: it is a SHORT, SIGHTLY, and SIMPLE name [LA Times letter]
Sanders: STOP him until his SAY was SAID
Sanders: loST STRAYED or STOLEN [heading above photos]
Sanders: TROUBLED and at TIMES TEMPESTUOUS SEAS of SCIENTIFIC learning [CR bio]
Sanders: VAGRANT and VAGABOND [CR bio]
Sanders: WAILING WINTER'S WINDING shroud [MHS-vol7 poem]
Sanders: because of the WICKED WASTE of ink [ML]
Sanders: to WITHER as it WAILED [MHS-vol7 poem]
Sanders: Here his WORK is WORTHY and WORTHILY done. [CR bio]

e) French and other foreign terms ****(H)

Both Sanders and Erdnase include foreign (especially French) terms in their writing.

Erdnase: beté [sic] noir, denouement, Beau-monde, entrée, cong‌é
Sanders: mon cherez frères d'amie [CR poem]; coups des main [CR poem]; chapeaux [CR poem]; retrousse [CR bio]; avec corp de sanitation [CR poem]; salud! [CR bio], terra incognita [MHS-lib], aber nit [CR poem]

f) Puns ****(H)

Erdnase: The Longitudinal Shift -- This SHIFT, for which we have to thank no one, is given a VERY LONG NAME, but the reader who is interested sufficiently to practice the process, will find it a VERY SHORT SHIFT [p130]
Sanders: SHIFTED some more cars up to the platform. ... Glad to hear the noon whistle and still more so to hear the evening's signal for the end of the SHIFT.

The corresponding puns on "shift" above were discovered by Marty Demarest. Many of the puns below were first identified by Bill Mullins and Marty Demarest and pointed out in the Genii Forum.

Erdnase: "The RIGHT hand holds the WRONG card..." [p151]
Erdnase: "Several cards are REMOVED entirely from the pack, but RETAINED in the memory..." [p116]
Erdnase: "The DEALER can gather up the cards with a great DEAL of judgment..." [p82]
Erdnase: In the average game where the players keep their hands, and ARMS also, on the table there is little opportunity to shift the cut [p111]
Erdnase: "...SPACE of TIME..." [p144]
Erdnase: "...a few repetitions of the same formula enables one to stock and talk at the same time." [p74]
Erdnase: [added 5/2018] certain knowledge that his more respected brother of the stock exchange possesses, viz. MANIPULATION is more profitable than SPECULATION; [p10]
Erdnase: Without ability to control his feelings the "advantage player" is without advantage. [p22]

Sanders: Am sore all over, blisters on hands, boots which I am trying to break in are breaking me up ...
Sanders: along with heart-failure we had a sudden change of heart [CR bio]
Sanders: You may distillate or early [distillate ~ late (or early) -- Clark worked on distillation of turpentine] [CR poem]
Sanders: Still your record you hold, mighty man at the ORE! -- (for G.B. Lee, on rowing team. Pun or oar/ore ) [CR poem]
Sanders: He's selim and selender, but, BLAME ME! -- (homophone with AMY, the subject of the poem) [CR poem]
Sanders: And he'll go very far, allee SAMEE. -- (homophone with AMY, the subject of the poem) [CR poem]
Sanders: For, Noble, you done noble and you are (on Louis S. Noble) [CR poem]
Sanders: And while Doolittle you may be, Doolittle, you do much. [CR poem]
Sanders: We wish thee joy, thou Angel heart, and here's a cup to you! [angel heart ~ E.N. Engelhardt in [CR poem]
Sanders: Now don't you, Me Boy -- ("Me Boy" ~ "Bemis" on Fred Bemis) [CR poem]
Sanders: Though your face it was beaming -- (beaming ~ Bemis on Bemis) [CR poem]
Sanders: [added 5/2018] And we drink his health in LIQUID That contains a sthick to LICK WID; [CR poem]
Sanders: [added 5/2018]: Aren't you tired of constructing such finely drawn wire?- It's a subject that seems long drawn out, Sir! [CR poem]

Note that the wordplay with Bemis (with the leading consonants (B,M) permuted into "Me Boy") is signaled by the capitalization. And the phonetic importance of Bemis is also reinforced earlier in the poem by the near homophones of "Bemis" and "beaming". This bit of wordplay is particularly interesting in that it mirrors the ("Ruse And" ↔ "Andrews") shuffling observed in the book's title.



10) Tables of common thematic words

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

The following tables include relatively ordinary terms that Erdnase uses over and over. These words are not unusual, in and of themselves, but they represent the themes of [rigor/precision], [excellence], and concern with [methods]. Some of these themes (and associated terms) are what you would expect in technical procedures and descriptions. Nonetheless, these words and their themes are worth emphasizing, as they show up repeatedly in a great many of the more linguistically interesting examples presented earlier. The word counts are not intended, at this stage, to prove anything. They are provided primarily as raw data to get a handle on what specific words the two writers commonly use (in contrast to the more distinctive phrases and idioms highlighted in the document above).

The words below were obtained by examining an automatically sorted list of words and their counts from Erdnase. The salient words, matching the criteria, were selected and counts performed from Mine Timbering and EATCT. Wildcards (denoted with a asterisk) were used to capture variations of word forms. For example "precis*" will match "precision", "precise", "precisely". Also note, the distinction between thematic words (included below) and topic words (excluded). This is roughly analogous to the linguistics notion of function words versus content words. Topic words would include words particular to or closely associated with the domain at hand (e.g. "minerals", "shuffle"). Thematic words closely associated with the domain topic were also omitted. For example, "execute" fit the [methods] theme but is tightly tied to an action-oriented domain (e.g. sleight of hand moves).

Most often, only word counts are provided below. But for some of the more salient words, sample sentences are also given to give a flavor how how they are used. Mine Timbering contains roughly 16K words compared to 56K words in EATCT (roughly 28% as many words). One future step would to present these counts normalized relative to the length of the text (along with other stats like number of individual words in the text, etc). Also to count these same thematic words in other Sanders' writings and in other writers of magic/gambling and mining literature of the time.

In a couple cases below, counts from other Sanders mining articles are included. In the process of collecting these counts, it becomes apparent how much genre and domain (e.g. between Sanders' Montana article and his mining articles) and random variation affect word counts and other characteristics of the language found. Similarly, EATCT has three quite different sections with different linguistic properties: the long introduction, the main sleights sections, and the card trick section. As an example of how sensitive word counts are to domain, consider the word "sufficient" and its variants ("sufficiently", ...). Erdnase uses it 21 times; Sanders uses it 13 times in Mine Timbering but not at all in his college class reunion writing.

Note: That these words are very frequently used by both writers is illustrated by the fact that many sentences include several of these terms. For example, this phrase by Erdnase contains seven!!

"...to OBTAIN a PERFECT UNDERSTANDING of the METHODS EMPLOYED, and the EXACT MANNER in which they are executed."


Rigor

Word Counts Samples

exact* 13
11
Erdnase: a perfect understanding of the EXACT manner in which it is performed [p52]
Sanders: must coincide when the true edge is EXACTLY vertical

invariably 5
12
Erdnase: The beginner INVARIABLY imagines his hands are too small... [p24]
Sanders: the bark should INVARIABLY be removed from the round timbers...

var* (vary, invariably, various, ...) 25
21
Erdnase: we have, in describing the VARIOUS processes and conditions... [p25]
Sanders: The framing of the VARIOUS sized shafts is very similar

*necessar* 29
27
Erdnase: this hand would be the one NECESSARILY employed [p192]
Sanders:for its shape is such that it must NECESSARILY increase the expense...

*possib* 50
13
Erdnase: it is absolutely IMPOSSIBLE for the keenest eye to detect the ruse.
Sanders: is IMPOSSIBLE to reinforce satisfactorily sets framed from such

require* 43
23
Erdnase: and mentally urge THE REQUIRED action [p196]
Sanders: each scantling is bored at THE REQUIRED intervals

rule 17
0
Erdnase: The inviolable RULE of the professional [p22]
Sanders: as a RULE yield the most durable wood [MTE]

thus 9
14
Erdnase: THUS enabling the right hand to seize them easier [p150]
Sanders: and THUS hastens the decay of the wood


Word Erdnase Sanders
absolute* 17 0 (1 in [MHS-lib])
*assume* 8 3
because 12 4
*calcul* 18 0
consequently 8 0
*correct* 3 2
*depend* 10 7
*distinct* 3 4
effectually 8 0
essential 7 1
exact* 13 11
hence 7 0
however 26 8
invariably 5 12
*known* 28 15
well known/well-known 6 1
must 75 10
*necess* 36 31
*necessar* 29 27
never 24 0
*possib* 50 13
precise*/precision 2 4
*probab* 20 3
*prove* 17 1
reason** 15 5
*regular* 31 5
require* 43 23
rule 17 0
shall 54 14
thereby 10 3
therefore 4 6
thus 9 14
true 19 10
*understand* 25 0
var* 25 21
wherein 3 0


Degree/amount/precision

This table groups terms that denote a degree or position on a linear scale, including relative positions.

considerable 8
7
Erdnase: This method requires CONSIDERABLE practice, [p67]
Sanders: in adits the set is often aligned with CONSIDERABLE exactness

utmost 3
2
Erdnase: An expert can run the whole deck with THE UTMOST rapidity [p58]
Sanders: huge timbers that have been frames with THE UTMOST precision


Word Erdnase Sanders
absolut* 17 0
at times 3 2
barely 5 0
*common* 17 3
*complete* 36 12, 0 (earth)
considerable 8 7
extreme* 9 2
extent 13 2
entire* 31 6
exception* 4 3
*frequent* 2 13
greater 19 9
greatly 8 3
identical* 6 4
infinit* 4 0
moderate* 2 0, 1 (earth)
nearly 5 3
often 7 21
ordinar* 34 2
practically 5 4
prevalent 4 0
primary/primarily 3 1
rather 13 5
somewhat 6 4
thorough* 21 1, 0 (earth)
throughout 5 10
*usually 13 21
utmost 3 2


Methods, Systems, processes

employ* 44
31
Erdnase: it is usually EMPLOYED TO receive and bring a selected card to the top [p130]
Sanders: when posts are EMPLOYED to form the complete square shaft set.

manner 78
10
Erdnase: the exact MANNER in which it is performed [p52]
Sanders: brought to their places in the same MANNER as has been described

method 119
75
Erdnase: This METHOD requires considerable practice, [p67]
Sanders: while the METHOD OF timbering is extremely simple it is unsatisfactory...


Word Erdnase Sanders
combination* 8 5
employ* 44 31
enable 26 2
instead 19 1
limited/limits/limitations
(Erdnase: limited. Sanders: others)
3 4
manner 78 10
manner 119 75
need* 10 6
obtain* 30 7
overcome 4 3
permit* 13 1 [+3 elsewhere]
prefer* 5 5
prevent* 16 10
principal(ly) 17 2
purpose 42 8
remain* 22 4
result* 9 4
system* 17 28


Excellence

accurate* 4
1
Erdnase: The correct positions and movements can be ACCURATELY secured. [p24]
Sanders: they will join ACCURATELY with those of the other connecting parts of the set

advanced 0
1
Sanders:FAR IN ADVANCE of that in use among the older and less progressive mining communities.

*correct* 3
2
Erdnase: If this position is secured CORRECTLY the tips of the
Sanders: the framing of all the parts CORRECTLY done

excellent 9
4
Erdnase: The latter position is AN EXCELLENT ONE [p134]
Sanders: this joint is without doubt AN EXCELLENT ONE

perfect* 70
5
Erdnase: PERFECT ability to run the whole deck through in this manner [p36]
Sanders: on the strength of materials he's surely PERFECTION

proper* 22
18
Erdnase: PROPERLY performed, it is impossible to detect the ruse. [p42]
Sanders: it also prevents the pieces from becoming PROPERLY seasoned

satisf* 14
6
Erdnase: to perform the action in anything like a SATISFACTORY manner [p122]
Sanders: while the method OF timbering is extremely simple it is UNSATISFACTORY...

sufficient* 21
13
Erdnase: just barely SUFFICIENTLY to hold the deck in place, [p54]
Sanders: beyond the side of the chute into the tramway SUFFICIENTLY far to allow...

superior 7
2
Erdnase: believe them VASTLY SUPERIOR to others that have come under our observation. [p14]

Misc

Word Erdnase Sanders
acquir* 36 0
alike 4 0
become 17 7
care 27 4
common (diff senses) 13 3
conditions 8 5
constant 10 0
could 8 0
descri* 51 6
determine* 18 1
except 7 6
exped* 5 0
former 6 8
important 9 6
indeed 6 2
indicate 17 0
itself 3 4
latter 3 14
matter* [n/v] 14 2
occur* 4 2
perhaps 10 0
possess* 17 1 [+7 columbia]
shown 19 25
success / (un)successfully 18 5
tend(s), tending, tendency 6 7
viz.: 4 1
whether 9 4







Conclusion and future work

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

The case for W.E. Sanders as S.W. Erdnase is strong. While there's no proof that the two men are one, many pieces of circumstantial evidence point in that direction. The starting point is the pseudonym "Erdnase."

The pseudonym and supporting evidence gets us half the way there. It establishes Sanders as a compellingly interesting "person of interest." Marty Demarest's subsequent research, linking Sanders to both gambling and magic, fills in the crucial blanks. And the compatibility with Smith's recollections reassure us that we're not being led astray.

The case is further strengthened and enriched by the personality and modes of thought that show through in the language. Sanders' writing voice and Erdnase's are strikingly similar. This document demonstrates, in detail, the many ways they correspond— from lexical-syntactic constructions, to word choice, to ironic flourishes, to rhetorical devices, to shared metaphors, to biographically-related topics, to stylistic quirks (e.g. vernacular speech and parenthetical punctuation), to coinciding themantic concerns, to the use of puns and scare quotes on the exact same words. Phew!!

More can be done to further map out the linguistic similarities. A partial list:




Appendix: Sanders' 1906 mining letter annotated (and Erdnase passage annotated)

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

In the following, we annotate two extended passages (one from Sanders, and one from Erdnase) with corresponding excerpts from the other writer's texts. The first passage is a mining letter written by Sanders. The second is an Erdnase paragraph from the introductory Card Table Artifice section in EATCT.

Sanders wrote the following letter to a mining journal in 1906. In every sentence within it, he touches on many of the same themes, linguistic elements, metaphors, and sources of humor as Erdnase. In the annotation below, we show the mappings of various elements in the letter to similar elements in EATCT. At the core is the metaphor of laughably naive or deceptive written works related to PROFESSIONALS in the domain (mining, card table artifice) which are EXHUMED and encased in some outer container (MOSS-COVERED, ENCLOSING SHELL). In both, the idea is expressed in a highly ironic and satiric tone.

sanders mining letter annotated



The following Erdnase passage [p14] touches on several themes that are echoed in Sanders’ writings, sometimes in almost identical words. The main theme is his INSUFFERABLE CONCEIT and acquiring WISDOM (in LARGE QUANTITIES) in the "COLD SCHOOL OF EXPERIENCE". In addition there are several subsidiary themes as well as linguistic constructs that are used by both writers.

sanders mining letter annotated




Appendix: Sanders' and Erdnase's vocabulary

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

As seen, Sanders had facility with language in various forms, using foreign terms, colloquial and dialectical speech, and his own humorous neologisms (cyclopaediculous) in a natural, unforced manner. He also had a very well-developed vocabulary, an outcome of his education and experience as a writer. Erdnase, likewise, had a talent for picking just the right word, and clearly was a well-educated person and experienced writer. While it is somewhat subjective as to what constitutes an "advanced" or "well-developed" vocabulary, we list below words in their writing that can be considered to match that criterion. Words that are used by both authors are capitalized.

Sanders: abatement, abiding, ablative, abode, abridged, accretion, accusative, adorn, adulation, ambient, ante-penult, antedates, APPARATUS, appellation, appropriation, apropos, ardently, ascertained, attenuated, AUDACITY, averment, azure, baleful, be-dimmed, beatitude, benedictions, BREVITY, burgesses, cannonading, carnage, celestial, cessation, cherubic, chronicles, coaelsced, cognomen, colloquy, companionable, CONCAVE, connubial, consecrated, consigned, contiguous, contour, contradistinction, CONTRIVANCE, contrive, conversant, conversely, convivial, convolutions, cordially, corroborative, corrugate, cosmopolitan, COUNTENANCE, COUPS, CULMINATE, CURRICULUM, cutaneous, DALLIANCE, DATA, DENOTING, DEMEANOR, DESIGNATION, DETRIMENT, differentiation, dilated, discordant, DISPERSED, DISPOSITION, disseminating, distempers, dithyrambic, divergent, dolefully, domiciled, doughtily, effervescent, elliptical, emblazoned, embowered, enactments, encomiums, ENDEAVOR, engendered, ENUMERATION, envenomed, epochs, ethnology, etymologically, euphonic, excrescence, excruciatingly, excursions, exhaustive, exigencies, extant, fain, fauna, felicitation, fidelity, flippant, fragmentary, frolicsome, furtive, gastropods, hexagonal, hexameter, homily, hypothesis, idyllic, immemorial, imperative, inaugurated, incalculable, incidental, incipient, incontinently, indelibly, indomitable, INDUCED, inference, inflection, ingenuousness, innocuous, instrumentality, intervening, INTIMATE (verb), jocund, joyance, jurasic, LATERAL, laudable, legation, LONGITUDINAL, luridly, malice, MANIFESTLY, mien, moiled, mouldered, mussed-up, mutation, myriad, nefarious, negligable, nominative, obliquely, octagonal, ordinances, parallelism, paramount, paraphernalia, pedagogic, pentameter, penult, perambulating, perpendicular, pertaining, picturesque, pinnacle, plaintive, polygonal, ponderous, portentous, precarious, premises, pristine, privation, prosaic, procrastinating, prospective, pugilist, qualification, quest, raiment, rambunctious, reminiscences, renders, repines, reprove, retrospection, rotund, sanguine, sauntering, scintillate, segregation, semblances, sepulchre, sequestered, serenade, sinuosities, skeins, solicitude, soliloquize, stenographically, SUBLIME, subsequent, subsidiary, succulent, suffice, superfluous, superseding, sylvan, tandem, tawny, temerity, tempestuous, tenacity, topographical, torrid, transpire, transverse, travail, truncated, ulsters, unceremoniously, unobtrusive, unscrupulous, vagabonding, vagrant, veneration, verbatim, verity, vicarious, vicissitudes, vocative, waning, warrant

Erdnase: abhorrent, accede, acme, actuated, adage, adjuring, alacrity, allaying, antiquated, APPARATUS, ascertain, AUDACITY, auditors, besiege, bosh, BREVITY, cant, censure, chicanery, cognition, commensurate, CONCAVE, confine, congenial, conning, consequences, CONTRIVANCE, convex, copious, coterie, COUNTENANCE, convex, covertly, COUPS, criterion, CULMINATES, cultivate, cupidity, CURRICULUM, cursory, cuticle, daintily, DALLIANCE, DATA, DENOTE, DESIGNATE, DETRIMENT, DEMEANOR, denominations, denouement, denunciation, deportment, diatribe, diffident, diminished, disabuse, disconcerting, disdains, DISPERSED, DISPOSITION, effectually, elucidated, ENDEAVOR, ENUMERATION, erroneously, erstwhile, essaying, exhaustive, expectorate, expedient, expeditiously, finesse, garnished, guile, homage, hypocritical, imbibe, impelled, importuned, imposition, impoverish, improvident, imputation, incessant, incidental, incredulity, indistinguishable, INDUCE, injunction, insufferable, interim, interpolation, INTIMATE (verb), inviolable, LATERAL, liable, LONGITUDINAL, MANIFESTED, mealymouthed, misnomer, modus operandi, monologue, nonchalantly, nonplus, oblige, obviates, opportune, ostensible, ostentatiously, overweening, palaver, patrician, perusal, perpetuate, perplexity, piety, plebeians, presumptuous, pretext, prevalent, prodigals, proffer, prolific, proposition, protracted, proximity, qualms, quarry, regale, repertory, requisite, rigamarole, sophistry, stoic, strategem, SUBLIMEST, subterfuge, supposition, tacit, talismanic, vagaries, vehemently, unfathomable, unostentatious, unstinted, untutored, veracity

We note that Sanders' list of words is quite a bit longer. This is largely a result of the different domains and genres he wrote in. If we looked only at Sander's mining texts, his list would be significantly reduced. Note also that mining-centric and overly technical words (e.g. "stopes", "equilibrium", "metalliferous", "kaolinization") were omitted. Overall, one gets the sense that their working vocabularies are roughly equivalent and point to an experienced writer with a college education.




Appendix: Other reversed and anagrammatic pen names

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

S.E. Erdnase was clearly a pen name, whether it was a simple reversal or an anagram. The following are examples of authors (and others) who have used reversed or anagrammatic names. All but a couple of these were found and compiled by Bill Mullins and posted in the Genii Erdnase thread. One source is Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous English Literature, Volume 3 By Samuel Halkett




Appendix: Literary allusions

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

Sanders was quite well read and sprinkled literary allusions throughout his writings. What follows is a collection of those references (and their sources) compiled by Bill Mullins and originally posted in the Genii Erdnase thread.

From "The Word Montana, its significance, derivation and historical use." Mont. His. S. 7: 15-60, 1910.

From Class of '85 School of Mines Columbia College Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Reunion (1911)

Newly added allusions from Class of '85 School of Mines Columbia College Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Reunion (1911)






Appendix: Introduction to the Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana, Vol 2

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

In 1895-1896, Sanders was the Librarian for the Historical Society of Montana. He took over the compilation, editing and publishing of the unfinished Volume 2 of Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana, due to the illness of the previous editor. The volume consisted of reminiscences, diaries, and other documents pertinent to Montana's early history.

In addition to compiling and editing many of the main documents, Sanders also wrote a few extended footnotes throughout the volume and most likely the Introduction. The Introduction doesn't have any name attached, but it was almost surely written by Sanders given his primary role in producing the volume AND the numerous overlaps (stylistic and topic-wise) with his other known writings. Several of these correspondences are detailed below. In addition, a remarkable set of parallels with a full passage in Erdnase are described separately here.

---- "dear, delightful days" ... [memories from the isolated/ended past] ----

Sanders/intro: those "DEAR, DELIGHTFUL DAYS" we recur as an era isolated from our present lives
Sanders: Of other loved memories of our "DEAR DELIGHTFUL DAYS" that ended a full quarter of a century ago [CR]

---- theater metaphor (drama enacted, ...) applied to Montana's settlers and history ----

Sanders/intro: did not know how great a DRAMA they were ENACTING; on how large a THEATRE they moved, nor how vast an AUDIENCE would be SPECTATORS of their every action
Sanders: within our borders were PLAYED the CLOSING SCENES in the DRAMA ENACTED by the contending forces of barbarism and civilization [MHS-lib]

---- public/future interest in narratives/stories and experiences/lives of pioneers/early-dwellers/early-history, much of which is irretrievably/wholly lost ----

Sanders/intro: Give the public a coherent and connected story of the pioneer experiences of our people. Material for such a work is scanty and widely dispersed; in some instances it seems to have been wholly lost...It is apparent that public interest in the events of our early history
Sanders: and such narratives and relics as would be of future interest which deal with the lives and works of the early dwellers and travellers in this section or tend to illustrate some incident in history... Already much from our past that we should possess is irretrievably lost to us [MHS-lib]

---- terra incognita ----

Sanders/intro: and on the east by the Belt Mountain Range, and all beyond was TERRA INCOGNITA,
Sanders: the accounts and experiences of those who "blazed the trails" into this, then, TERRA INCOGNITA and founded the government upon which... [MHS-lib]
Sanders: the vast western TERRA INCOGNITA greatly increased among the Frenchman. [MHS-vol7]

---- Montana escape from savagery ----

Sanders/intro: this CONQUEST OF MONTANA from SAVAGE life
Sanders: our TERRITORY AND STATE....the WRESTING OF this domain FROM SAVAGERY [MHS-lib]

---- sleep broken/shattered/jarred ----

Sanders/intro: has BROKEN in upon our SLEEPLESSNESS, JARRED COARSELY on our sensibilities
Sanders: SLEEP IS ANNIHILATED and the midnight airs SHATTERED, your ear-drums pierced and all but BROKEN- by the frightful wails of the infant. [CR bio]

---- bright vivid imagination/past ----

Sanders, in both the Introduction and his other writings, waxes poetic about the vivid/bright colors of mental perceptions and stories.

Sanders/intro: In our mind's eye we have dropped the new era of to-day in the robes of dullness, and we are painting that unique past with primrose hues.
Sanders/intro: First impressions of a country and its people are generally vivid, and .... the possession of pen pictures so graphic as to be of absorbing interest....We must gather the whole story
Sanders: From the bright story-land where you wander in dreams [CR poem]
Sanders: the memory retains all the freshness and brightness of coloring of the skeins [CR bio]

---- primrose
Sanders/intro: we are painting that unique past with PRIMROSE hues
Sanders: to tread the PRIMROSE paths of dalliance and joyance. [CR bio]





Appendix: More photos of Sanders

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

[added 3/2019]

What follows are two photos of Sanders, over 25 years apart. The first is a photo of Sanders with his Columbia crew team (ca. 1882). The second is a photo of Sanders in 1910 during his 25th college reunion dinner. Apparently Sanders 1918 passport described him as having a crooked little finger on his left hand. It's not evident in the photo. See also here for the crew photo with annotated heights of the various team members.

Steps Steps


Steps Steps Steps

Photos from the Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Columbia University Libraries.





Appendix: Sanders' height (and class photo)

Prev Next    Index ☛ Highlights

[added 6/2018]

How tall was Erdnase, and how tall was Sanders, and are their heights compatible? The book's illustrator, Marshall Smith, was over 6 feet tall and recalled looking down on Erdnase. He estimated Erdnase's height as 5'6, but also allowed his height as being between 5'5 and 5'7. Even if Smith's memory and estimates were not exact or totally accurate, we can safely assume that Erdnase was on the short side and that his height was roughly in the range described by Smith. We know that Sanders was not tall. He mentions in his diaries that he was 5' when he was 14 years old. Later in life, we have the following reported heights:

From Sanders' class photo and the reported heights of his classmates, we can form another estimate by comparing his height to four classmates who are standing on the same step as Sanders. These classmates' heights are all given in their class reunion bios:

These heights can't all be exactly correct, since Englehardt looks to be slightly taller than Moldenke, who he is standing next to, even though Moldenke's listed height is half an inch taller. Likewise, Whitman looks to be quite a bit taller than 6'1 (assuming the other heights are correct).

Using the reported heights, we can estimate Sanders' height by comparing his height to his classmates in the class photo by using the bricks on the building as a ruler. The standard height of a brick is 2 1/4 inches, though some can be larger. (Similar metrics could used by measuring the average distance between eyes, length of nose, etc.) If we assume the standard 2 1/4 inch brick height, then we can estimate Sanders as being about one brick (2 1/4 inches) shorter than both Englehardt and Moldenke. This makes him 5'7 3/4 or 5'8 1/4. Likewise he appears to be about one inch taller than Starek, which would make him 5'8 1/2. If we assume roughly accurate heights for these classmates, it seems that Sanders' height was a little over 5'8. On the other hand, if his classmates were exaggerating their heights, then Sanders' height would be correspondingly less.

One explanation for the inconsistencies is that men tend to inflate their heights by about an inch on average. So self-declared heights are not necessarily accurate.

As another example of inconsistent heights, on the second step we find Woolson (6') and Hollis (5'10), where Woolson appears to be about four inches taller than Hollis. However, the differential between Hollis's height and other classmates on the same step (Page and Detwiller) seems consistent with their reported heights. So it appears that two of the tallest people (Whitman and Woolson) might be under-representing their heights. This is substantiated in the case of Whitman, where we learn elsewhere that Wiltsee (standing on his left) was six foot five inches tall. Whitman looks to be an inch or so shorter than Wiltsee, which would be substantially taller than the 6'1 given in the class bio (assuming that Wiltsee's 6'5 height is accurate).

Note: the measurements and estimates above are all necessarily approximate. Aside from the potential error/exaggeration in reported heights, people's perceived heights can vary slightly depending on whether they're standing straight or slouched, what shoes they're wearing, etc. In addition, the camera angle and distance adds additional variation to direct measurements made on the photo. For example, a view from above (more pronounced for people near the camera) will tend to make people appear to be shorter (as measured on the photo). Likewise people in the back will appear somewhat smaller due to the greater distance from the camera. However, none of these effects are major when comparing people standing in the same row in what appear to be relatively normal posture.

What can we conclude from this? A height of 5'8 would be about an inch taller than the upper range of Smith's recollection. So that would make Sanders a little too tall to be Erdnase. However, given the substantial uncertainties involved (45 year old recollections and the difficulty of exactly estimating heights, both in real life and from photos, and from the fact that self-reported heights are frequently exaggerated), we can't conclude much other than based on height alone, Sanders could be Erdnase, even if he doesn't exactly fit into the range given by Smith.

Sanders class photo C. H. Detwiller Columbia 1885 Collection, Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University

For reference, these appear to be the same six steps with no people.

Steps

We can also examine Sanders' crew photo to get a sense of his height. This version is labeled with heights given for the other crew members. As can be seen, Sanders is in the front row next to John Middleton, who is listed as 5'8" (as is Sanders). It's hard to tell for sure (due to the angles etc.), but Middleton seems longer-legged and perhaps taller.

crew




Appendix: Highlights

Prev   Return to Index

This section contains a couple dozen excerpts from the other sections — those that best convey the strength and range of similarities between the two authors. These include purely linguistic parallels (lexical, syntactic, semantic, stylistic, and idiomatic), biographical references, metaphorical and thematic commonalities, and other instances exemplifying a common underlying voice and personality.

****(H) PROFESSIONALS --- EXHUME/BURIAL metaphor --- wiles/wicked/waste alliteration [irony] ----

Erdnase and Sanders both take delight in pointing out hypocrisy. In this example, they sarcastically mock the pretensions of so-called "professionals" using the same metaphor (EXHUMING) and almost identical alliteration (Wicked, Wiles, Waste).

Erdnase: Self-styled "ex-professionals" have regaled the public with astounding disclosures of their former wiles and wickedness, and have proven a wonderful knowledge of the subject by exhuming some antiquated moss-covered ruses [p13]

Sanders: certainly in part it is too good to keep, and in a spirit of benevolence and as an offering upon the shrine of professional goodwill toward professional brethren, the following extracts have been exhumed from their obscure place of burial [...] and how many reports presuming to describe mining properties are written that should never have been penned - because of the wicked waste of ink resulting therefrom. [ML1913]

****(H) ---- self-styled "professionals" vs self-constituted "historians" [irony] ----

In this example, Erdnase's same self-styled "ex-professionals" (as above) corresponds to yet another passage in Sanders, where he criticizes self-constituted "historians". Both phrases mock their targets using almost identical hyphenated adjectives sharing the same lead word (SELF-styled vs SELF-constituted). And both groups ("ex-professionals" and "historians") are encased in scare quotes to amplify the sarcastic tone. The parallels extend much further as described below.

In both passages, a set of CULPRITS (shameless professionals/historians) have hoodwinked their VICTIMS (public) with (old, subpar) GOODS in an aggressive/crude and deceptive MANNER.

Erdnase: Self-styled "ex-professionals" have regaled the public with astounding disclosures of their former wiles and wickedness, and have proven a wonderful knowledge of the subject by exhuming some antiquated moss-covered ruses as well known as nursery rhymes, and even these extraordinary revelations are calmly dismissed with the assertion that this or that artifice is employed; in nowise attempting to explain the process or give the detail of the action mentioned. If terrific denunciation of erstwhile associates, and a diatribe on the awful consequences of gambling are a criterion of ability, these purified prodigals must have been very dangerous companions at the card table. [p13]

Sanders: That unblushing visigoth, the literary huckster with his second-hand wares, has broken in upon our sleeplessness, jarred coarsely on our sensibilities, usurped without invitation or consent the most responsible and solemn position which our civilization has created and in which every citizen has an interest, and has palmed off upon us our own alleged history. These literary commercial travelers seize extant information without reference to its reliability to give currency to wares of unimportant or apocryphal quality [...] His mission is fulfilled when he tumbles into one kaleideoscopic mass what has been said, without reference to what has occurred. Such is our self-constituted "historian" and of such quality is his alleged "History." [mhs-vol2 intro]

Also note the similarity between Sanders' description of "sensibilities" and a different passage, elsewhere in Erdnase, where sensibilities are also being coarsely and almost physically offended.

Sanders: JARRED COARSELY on our SENSIBILITIES [in Intro above]
Erdnase: BRUTALLY taken advantage of...EXTREMELY GALLING to their aristocratic SENSIBILITIES. [p173-174 Exclusive Coterie]

Note: The Sanders passage comes from the Introduction to Contributions to Historical Society of Montana, Vol 2, which Sanders compiled and edited. The Introduction is unattributed, but a set of correspondences between the Introduction and Sanders' other writings are detailed here.

****(H) ---- acquiring WISDOM in bulk when younger [knowledge] ----

Both writers characterize the large quantities of worldly knowledge (wisdom) which they acquired in their younger days.

Erdnase: We naturally began to imbibe WISDOM in COPIOUS DRAUGHTS at the customary sucker rates. ...and the sum of our PRESENT KNOWLEDGE is proffered in this volume [p14]

Sanders: We did a lot of hustlin' then and gained a HEAP OF KNOWLEDGE and picked VAST WISDOM UP IN CHUNKS in MANY VARIOUS LINES. [CR poem]

****(H) ---- something "too good" to not be indulged in. [humor] ----

Erdnase: A self-satisfied unlicked cub with a fairly fat bank roll was TOO GOOD A THING TO BE PASSED UP. [p14]
Sanders: and the joke, TOO GOOD TO BE PERMITTED TO DIE EARLY [CR bio]
Sanders: Certainly in part it is TOO GOOD TO KEEP, and in a spirit of benevolence ....

---- other "TOO XX TO YY" examples ----
Erdnase: some of us are TOO TIMID TO risk a dollar [p9]
Sanders: those dear bygone times were TOO JOYOUS TO last [CR poem]
Sanders: whereby hangs a tale which Sanders says is TOO LONG AND BOLD TO relate here [CR bio]

****(H) ---- deferring telling a story/tale/letter (for unstated reasons) ----

In this example, the writers have something very interesting to tell. But they refrain from fully revealing it, possibly for dramatic effect, or because it would be embarrassing or self-incriminating.

Erdnase: the back palm once helped us out of a difficult situation BUT THAT IS ANOTHER STORY. [p147]
Sanders: whereby hangs a TALE which Sanders says is TOO LONG AND BOLD TO RELATE HERE [CR bio]
Sanders: More of the LETTER might be given, BUT I REFRAIN. [CR bio]

Sanders has others of this sort where he sets the stage but then pulls back.

Sanders: We see him (and another WHO SHALL BE NAMELESS) at a semi-annual examination, interviewing two unwashed Italian organ grinders [CR bio]
Sanders: Hollis has always accused the scribe of flirting with the waitress or the cook or somebody; but since he did not bring all of the proofs and records back from that journey into the unknown, the same is not proven, and though the flirting is barely possible, IT MAY NOT HAVE HAPPENED. [CR bio]

****(H) ---- subject/method is FOREIGN TO the purpose/subject but (cursory review / touched upon) [methods]

Erdnase: The SUBJECT of prepared cards is almost as FOREIGN TO the MAIN PURPOSE OF THIS WORK as the preceding one of hold outs, but a CURSORY REVIEW of the commoner kinds and their uses may not be out of place. [p15]

Sanders: Nor is it intended to explain METHODS technically FOREIGN TO the SUBJECT, although such will be TOUCHED UPON.

****(H) ---- encourage reader to "PERUSE" a particular section of the work to aid understanding [methods] ----

Erdnase: A CAREFUL PERUSAL OF THE FOLLOWING definitions will save much time and perplexity in COMPREHENDING the processes described [p25]

Sanders: A PERUSAL OF THE FOLLOWING excerpts from the text will CONVINCE any fair minded unbiased mining engineer (ML)

****(H) ---- certain terms/symbols ... for the SAKE OF BREVITY ... designate / describing [methods] ----

Erdnase: we have, in DESCRIBING the various processes and conditions, used CERTAIN TERMS for the SAKE OF BREVITY, to DESIGNATE the particular matters referred to. [p25]

Sanders: for the SAKE OF BREVITY in DESCRIPTION, CERTAIN SYMBOLS letters or figures, are employed to DESIGNATE the various mine workings, as follows: [RFMW]
Sanders: they are thus marked, CERTAIN SYMBOLS may be discarded for the SAKE OF BREVITY, and only such as are essential to the DESCRIPTION of the working be employed. [MT]

****(H) ---- this is generally true but (not always so / exceptions) ---

[updated 9/2018]
Erdnase: That this is GENERALLY TRUE cannot be denied, BUT it is BY NO MEANS ALWAYS SO. [p109]
Sanders: THIS IS GENERALLY TRUE BUT has one or two EXCEPTIONS [SMR]
Sanders: it is CERTAIN that such is TRUE ONLY IN PART [L-1896]
Sanders: This HYPOTHESIS, however, is TRUE ONLY IN PART; for through causes that are SOMETIMES KNOWN, BUT OFTEN are UNKNOWN,

---- with the exception
Erdnase:: WITH THE EXCEPTION of the first shuffle [p75]
Sanders: in a manner almost identical with that of the one-compartment shaft, WITH THE EXCEPTION that the sides plates are...

****(H) ---- impossibility/possibility ----

[updated 2/2019]

---- as it is utterly impossible

Erdnase: AS IT IS UTTERLY IMPOSSIBLE for me to see at all [p176]
Sanders: AS IT IS UTTERLY IMPOSSIBLE to replace the missing papers... [MHS-vol3]

--- almost/entirely impossible ...prove/establish

Erdnase: is ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE, and PROOF of the act is wholly wanting [p24]
Sanders: it PROVED to be ENTIRELY IMPOSSIBLE to ESTABLISH [MHS-vol7]

---- quite/almost impossible .... without

Erdnase: as it appears QUITE IMPOSSIBLE TO throw the top card WITHOUT dropping both. [p120
Sanders: more, it is ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE TO replace a rung WITHOUT destroying

---- preclude the possibility of ----

Erdnase: so as to PRECLUDE THE POSSIBILITY OF the schemer being discovered with the goods on him. [p116]
Sanders: the slope of the vein (21 degrees) PRECLUDES THE POSSIBILITY OF the tripod support being used...[SMR]

---- the greatest/least possible/probability ----

Erdnase: employed with THE GREATEST PROBABILITY of success at the card table [p99]
Sanders: this framing is such as obtains THE GREATEST POSSIBLE stiffness...

Erdnase: THE LEAST POSSIBLE pressure should be exerted when [p38]
Erdnase: the two packets pass through THE LEAST POSSIBLE space in changing their position [p99]
Sanders: to form a connection that will weaken the timbers forming the " set " or frame IN THE LEAST POSSIBLE degree

****(H) ---- MOST x and y MACHINE/DEVICE EVER/YET CONSTRUCTED [excellence] ----

[updated 11/2018]

Erdnase: the MOST novel AND perfect MACHINES EVER CONSTRUCTED [p15]
Sanders: the simplest AND MOST easily manipulated DEVICE YET CONSTRUCTED

Erdnase: the MOST subtle AND ingenious gambling GAMES EVER DEVISED [p117]

Erdnase: one of the most most NOVEL and perfect machines ever CONSTRUCTED makes [p15]
Sanders: it consists of the NOVEL features of CONSTRUCTION... [Patent]

****(H) ---- difficulties/objections OVERCOME BY THE USE OF xx which is yy [methods] ----

Erdnase: This OBJECTION is entirely OVERCOME BY THE USE OF the break, WHICH IS illustrated in the following blind shuffle [p31]
Sanders: this DIFFICULTY is OVERCOME BY THE USE OF a half right-angled miter, of 45 deg., WHICH IS framed from the face of the timber...

****(H) ---- difficulties OVERCOME BY knowledge/understanding ----

Erdnase: When the positions and process are thoroughly UNDERSTOOD the main DIFFICULTIES ARE OVERCOME [p90]
Sanders: It is only by actual KNOWLEDGE in the handling of affairs that he is enabled to judge correctly of the conditions and to apply the proper remedies for OVERCOMING THE DIFFICULTIES that are continually arising.

Erdnase: and have OVERCOME by far the greatest DIFFICULTY. [p80]
Sanders: which DIFFICULTY may in a measure BE OVERCOME by diagonal spiling

[added 5/2018]
---- difficulty is avoided ----
Erdnase: the DIFFICULTY of the twisting out process IS AVOIDED. [p163]
Sanders: the DIFFICULT and expensive construction of the sloping bottom bin IS AVOIDED.

****(H) ---- may be employed advantageously under XX circumstances/conditions ----

[updated 3/2019]

Erdnase: several processes that MAY BE EMPLOYED ADVANTAGEOUSLY UNDER special CIRCUMSTANCES. [p144]
Erdnase: the most FAVORABLE CONDITIONS UNDER which the ruse can be EMPLOYED. [p57]
Sanders: but they MAY BE EMPLOYED ADVANTAGEOUSLY UNDER ALL CONDITIONS, except where the structure ... [L1-1906]

Erdnase uses the term "employ" 44 times. It is often pointed to as a "signature" word for him. Significantly, Sanders also uses it extensively, over 30 times in Mine Timbering alone. Here are some other ways they use it in common:

---- may be employed with great ----
Erdnase: shift that MAY BE EMPLOYED WITH the GREATEST probability of success [p99]
Sanders: and it MAY BE EMPLOYED WITH GREAT benefit

---- generally employed
Erdnase: A third way, and the most GENERALLY EMPLOYED, is for [p114]
Sanders: now so GENERALLY EMPLOYED among the metal mines

---- successfully employed ----
Erdnase: EMPLOYED with the greatest probability of SUCCESS at the card table [p99]
Erdnase: to EMPLOY a machine SUCCESSFULLY requires considerable address [p15]
Sanders: SUCCESSFULLY EMPLOYED to meet just such conditions in swelling ground. [MT]

---- methods employed ----
Erdnase: the several METHODS EMPLOYED appear the same as those in common every-day usage. [p164]
Sanders: may METHODS of framing the joints have been EMPLOYED and many forms of joints used.

---- process ... employed ... for the/this purpose ----
Erdnase: In this PROCESS an entirely different subterfuge IS EMPLOYED, and it is probably the most ingenious ever devised FOR THE PURPOSE [p149]
Sanders: For this purpose the PROCESS known as spiling or forepoling IS EMPLOYED
Sanders: with some form of the v-tenon IS EMPLOYED FOR THE PURPOSE of dividing the cross-sectional area

****(H) ---- culled ... fairly well ----

In this example, a distinctive word ("cull") is used in the same sentence as the collocation "fairly well." It is also possible that Sanders' choice of the word "cull" was influenced by its gambling connotations.

Erdnase: These examples of CULLING, if FAIRLY WELL executed. [p81]
Sanders: FAIRLY WELL filled with data CULLED in a measure from geologic reports... [ML1913]

****(H) ---- dalliance ----

[added 5/2018]
Erdnase: If DALLIANCE with the deck is allowed [p60]
Erdnase: when the company will stand for DALLIANCE at all [p62]
Sanders: to tread the primrose paths of DALLIANCE and joyance. [CR bio]

Dalliance is an uncommon word used by both writers. It also has some interesting biographical connotations with Sanders. Dalliance is defined as: "Frivolous spending of time; dawdling: passed the summer in idle dalliance."

We know that Sanders enjoyed spending time in his home in Helena "reading," "writing," and "loafing." He poetically titled the first section in his summer mining school memoir as "Sinking and Drifting with Machines." And in one of his college reunion poems he writes "I'd rather lie upon my back and gaze up to the sky." These all evoke the feeling of passing the summer on the "primrose paths" of idle dalliance.

****(H) ---- Pun on "shift" ----

Erdnase and Sanders both make a pun on the same word ("shift")

Erdnase: The Longitudinal Shift -- This SHIFT, for which we have to thank no one, is given a VERY LONG NAME, but the reader who is interested sufficiently to practice the process, will find it a VERY SHORT SHIFT [p130]
Sanders: SHIFTED some more cars up to the platform. ... Glad to hear the noon whistle and still more so to hear the evening's signal for the end of the SHIFT.

(Pointed out by Marty Demarest.)

****(H) ---- "make good" [idiomatic. Scare quotes] ----

Erdnase and Sanders both use scare quotes extensively to signal ironic or some other non-standard sense. In this instance they both use scare quotes on the same short phrase. It's also worth noting that "make good" has a connotation related to paying debts. Sanders is known to received letters related to gambling debts.

Erdnase: he coolly proposes to "MAKE GOOD" by transforming the wrong card [p151]
Sanders: Has "MADE GOOD" at the bar, where he shines [CR poem]
Sanders: But in his work he's long MADE GOOD [CR poem]

****(H)---- Boasting. Vanity. Insufferable conceit. Bragging. ----

Erdnase and Sanders both refer to the psychology behind vanity and boasting.

Erdnase: Excessive VANITY proves the undoing of many experts. ... It requires the philosophy of the stoic to possess any great superiority and refrain from BOASTING to friend or foe. [p23]
Sanders: Not given to VAIN BOASTINGS was he, and we learned but little of his life's history [CR bio]

And more significantly, they confess to this personality flaw themselves. Erdnase admits to being "self-satisfied" and to his "insufferable conceit." And Sanders mocks himself as "braggin' yet." Like Erdnase, he's very self aware of this failing; and he can see right through his own pretense, admonishing himself "you can't fool me." In a second instance, he contrasts conceit ("vain boastings") with true "high and reckless courage." And in a third instance, he idealizes the benefits of true courage and its effect on the heart, where rather than Erdnase's "HEARTrending jolts," the truly brave man would reap "HEART-satisfying rewards."

Erdnase: OVERWEENING FAITH in our own potency. We BUCKED THE TIGER voluntarily, and censure no one for the inevitable result. A SELF-SATISFIED unlicked cub with a fairly fat bank roll ... but the jars to our pocketbook caused far less anguish than the HEARTRENDING JOLTS to our INSUFFERABLE CONCEIT [p14]

Sanders: [mocking] to hear him talk of the pace he's set; an' of what he's done, for HE'S BRAGGIN' YET; ... but I know you, Bill, an' you can't fool me!

Sanders: [contrasting] not given to VAIN BOASTINGS....that high and reckless COURAGE [CR bio]

Sanders: [idealizing] HEART-SATISFYING REWARDS that can come to "a BRAVE MAN struggling in the storms of fate,"

They also both make a point of highlighting the modesty in their own or others' claims/assertions.

Erdnase: We MODESTLY CLAIM originality for the particular manner of accomplishing ... [p13-14]
Sanders: He now MODESTLY ASSERTS that he wears "only an upper-lip adornment," [CR bio]
Sanders: And we all know full well how necessary the work is, whatever, in OUR MODESTY, we may state as to the possession of brains. [CR bio]

****(H) ---- FLASH ----

In this example a simple word choice reveals a larger metaphor and similar patterns of thought.

Erdnase: made like a FLASH [p134]
Erdnase: in a FLASH [p92]
Sanders: humour would FLASH and beam in him as FLASH the lightnings

In addition to the word choice itself, there is something very interesting about FLASH. Erdnase uses the word six times to describe the speed of certain sleights being performed; and in three of those he mentions the absence of sound. In one case, however, he characterizes that missing sound as a "snap and crack," clearly of lightning.

Erdnase: The shift can be MADE LIKE A FLASH, and with the cards in perfect order. When executed perfectly, the ONLY SOUND is the slipping of one packet over the other. There is NO SNAP OR CRACK, and it is in every way worthy of the practice necessary to acquire it. [p134]

Significantly, when Sanders uses the term FLASH, he mentions lightning explicitly and even invokes the way lightning forms on a warm midsummer day. The metaphorical FLASH has become literal.

Sanders: enjoyed the added WARMTH UPON A MIDSUMMER DAY, ... mirth and humor would FLASH and beam in him as FLASH the LIGHTNINGS of his beloved Physics.

It could be argued that the sound of a shift is as important an aspect as the speed, and hence we would expect a description of its sound . While this is true, it would be unusual to characterize the sound of a shift as a "snap or crack" independently of the flash of lightning metaphor. In both texts, the author uses the term "flash" figuratively but augments the metaphor by connecting it to its literal roots.

And then, in a pair of consecutive paragraphs, Erdnase ties the bow by directly stating the metaphor.

Erdnase: The actual palming can be done IN A FLASH, and as we have said, the only objections are the necessary manoeuvers to obtain the position in a natural and easy manner. [...] In the second part of this book will be found, under the caption Changes, several methods of palming which are LIGHTNING-LIKE in rapidity but are more applicable to card conjuring than card playing. [p92-93]

To summarize: in this example, both writers are using the term FLASH metaphorically, to signify something happening QUICKLY and SUDDENLY. But in doing so, they are thinking (consciously or unconsciously) in terms of the metaphorical roots (LIGHTNING) from which it is derived, even in cases where lightning is not mentioned. This is a deeper and more significant similarity than a mere word choice— it is a sign of a similar thought process underlying that choice.

[Matching words "flash" noticed by Leonard Hevia]

****(H) ---- Sanders on GAMBLING ----

Sanders writes explicitly about gambling games in a poem to Johnson.

Sanders:
Come, Johnson, cease your naughty ways,
Make simple faro, poker plays
Or roulette e'en, but stop this craze
For playin' the "Shell game."

However, Johnson, when I learn
The shell game played by your concern
Is not the western game I yearn
To see played on the square,
[...]

For reference, the following gambling-oriented terms are used by Sanders (sometimes figuratively) in his various writings: on the square, "make good," quit the game, honorable dealing, palm off, faro, poker, shell game, roulette, cassino (misspelled same way as Erdnase)

****(H) ---- Sanders on MINING/GAMBLING ----

[added 5/2018]

In poems for his classmates Huntington and Hollis, mining and gambling are tightly linked (as they were historically). Huntington left mining to settle down with a family and work in education. Sanders refers to it as having "quit the game," a phrase also referenced by Erdnase. And then Sanders says that Huntington is "STRAIGHT and true."

Erdnase: In most card GAMES ... there is an old adage much quoted that runs, "If suspected, QUIT." [p78]

Sanders:
So, Huntington, you QUIT THE GAME
Our mining engineers HAVE PLAYED
How thoughtful, gentle, STRAIGHT and true

Sanders:
As one who knows THE MINING GAME
From primal A to izzard...
He'd brave the cannon's mouth
When he some METAL CHASES.

And here's the kicker: both Sanders and Erdnase explicitly contrast other MORE RESPECTABLE PROFESSIONS (education and stock trading) with the WILD DELIGHTS and SENSATIONS associated with gambling and/or mining.

Sanders: Huntington has placed taboo the WILD DELIGHTS AND EXHILERATING INFLUENCES of the MINING PROFESSION and settled into the more prosaic, even if MORE RESPECTABLE, calling of education. [CR bio]

Erdnase: have impressed the PROFESSIONAL CARD PLAYER with a certain knowledge that his MORE RESPECTED brother of the stock exchange possesses ... Hazard at play carries SENSATIONS that once ENJOYED are rarely forgotten [p10]

The danger of gambling is also described metaphorically. Erdnase writes of how he "bucked the tiger" and lost his money. This is a figure of speech referring to gambling at faro. Sanders uses a very similar image in describing how Hollis, his classmate and fellow mining engineer, would "brave the cannon's mouth" in the context of pursuing of money (metal) in "the mining game." The metaphors visually evoke the perils of the cannon's mouth and the tiger with its huge jaws, and the ferocious roar of both— all in the context of chasing money.

Erdnase: We BUCKED THE TIGER voluntarily, and censure no one for the inevitable result. A self-satisfied unlicked cub with a FAIRLY FAT BANK ROLL was too good a thing to be passed up. [p14]

Sanders: As one who knows THE MINING GAME From primal A to izzard...HE'D BRAVE THE CANNON'S MOUTH When he some METAL CHASES. [CR poem]

****(H) ---- Sanders and Erdnase on the derivation of linguistic terms ----

[updated 2/2019]

Both Sanders and Erdnase show substantial interest in the derivation, definitions, and application of words and names. This includes calling attention to cases when a word is commonly misused or a misnomer.

While librarian for the Historical Society of Montana, Sanders wrote an in-depth article on the derivation of the name Montana. And in his Columbia class reunion bios, he explicates the sources of the nicknames of his classmates. In addition, his mining articles also describe the derivation of terminology.

Sanders: the WORD is an adjective form that is DERIVED from the noun mount or mountain. [MHS-vol7]
Sanders: making their way over to the headwaters of the Musselshell river, SO NAMED because of the shells that are to be found along its banks. [MHS-vol7]
Sanders: Of Starek we remember the CAUSE which led to the NICKNAME by which he was known to us all, that of "Pop" Starek. [CR bio]
Sanders: ERNEST JULIUS HYACINTH AMY...a name which served the double use of his COGNOMEN and our own mark of affection, for he was never known to us by his FRONT NAME or any of them.
Sanders: This DESIGNATION is now GENERALLY APPLIED TO THE plates of both the vertical and inclined shafts, although it is probable that the NAME ORIGINATED in connection with the timbering of the latter ...and this SIGNIFICANCE of the TERM was finally EXTENDED TO comprehend the similar longer plates of vertical shafts as well. [MT]
Sanders: An adit, USUALLY MISCALLED tunnel throughout the West [MT]
Sanders: The Shoshone Indians ... were called the Gens du Serpent, a NAME SIGNIFICANT of the feelings entertained for that tribe.... [MHS-vol7]
Sanders: According to Mrs. Ann Clark Thruston Farrar, and a niece of Captain William Clark ... the final "e" was used or omitted at the pleasure of the writer. The NAME is frequently, and probably the MORE CORRECTLY, SPELLED without it... A SIMILAR MUTATION IN THE SPELLING OF NAMES is illustrated in many other instances beside this. — W. E. S. [MHS-vol2 footnote]

Erdnase displays a similar interest in the derivation and definitions of names and other terms. He mentions the likely source of the term "cold deck" and recognizes that the standard name of a sleight ("back palm") is actually a misnomer. He also takes time to describe the origins of names that he, himself, has invented.

Erdnase: The "Cold Deck" ... The NAME is probably DERIVED from the fact that the deck must await its opportunity long enough to contract a chill in the interim. [p18]
Erdnase: The Back Palm.-- We are afraid the above title is a MISNOMER.
Erdnase:The Longitudinal Shift.-- This shift, for which we have to thank no one, is GIVEN A VERY LONG NAME ... [p135]
Erdnase: The S. W. E. Shift. We have not DUBBED the following process with OUR INITIALS because we wish to appear "big on the bills," but merely to GIVE IT A NAME. [p134]
Erdnase: We USE THE WORD "honestly" IN THE SENSE that it MAY BE APPLIED TO qualify any procedure in a game of chance [p117]

Both are interested not only in origins of words but of methods.

[added 9/2018]
Erdnase: METHODS following were ORIGINATED by us, and we believe [p25]
Erdnase: we must confess to some satisfaction in having ORIGINATED what we believe to be... [p134-135]
Erdnase: This IS KNOWN to conjurers AS the "Charlies Pass," and we presume WAS INVENTED by the famous magician of that name. [p128]
Sanders: square-set SYSTEM of timbering was ORIGINATED to meet the needs of the situation
Sanders: are but the application of OLD METHODS to present use, while other systems are distinctly modern, both in ORIGIN and application.

☛ See also combination of letters.

****(H) ---- Erdnase on MINING and ARCHAEOLOGY (from "The Divining Rod") ----

The Divining Rod represents a remarkable confluence of Sanders' background and interests (mining and cultural preservation) into a single card trick.

Erdnase's patter centers on the conceit of prospecting for gold. This is something Sanders did in real life.

Erdnase: I have mapped out a plan of experiment and study that will in time, I trust, enable me to give once more to the world complete and scientific data for positively ascertaining the immediate whereabouts of such METALS AS GOLD, SILVER OR COPPER by a process as simple as the waving of a willow wand over the PROSPECTED AREA. [p175]

Both Erdnase and Sanders describe the search for hidden underground deposits.

Erdnase: DIVINING THE PRESENCE of water or metals that lay HIDDEN far under the ground [p175]
Sanders: except in the case of PROSPECTING HIDDEN or BLIND deposits

In the same trick, Erdnase refers to ARCHAEOLOGY and bemoans the WONDERFUL ARTS from ancient times that are now LOST. Sanders, in the 1890s, was Librarian for Historical Society of Montana and actively worked to preserve the "archaeology" and its "wonderfully interesting" oral history and relics among those that are already "irretrievably lost."

Erdnase: It is a fact well known to ARCHAEOLOGISTS that many very WONDERFUL ARTS which were POSSESSED by the ANCIENTS have, through the COURSE OF AGES, been completely LOST to MODERN CIVILIZATION. [p175]
Sanders: the various objects which might serve to enlighten us upon the ARCHAEOLOGY and Ethnology of the Northwest; and such narratives and RELICS as would be of future interest which deal with the lives and works of the EARLY DWELLERS and travellers in this section or tend to illustrate some incident IN HISTORY... What a vast mass of WONDERFULLY interesting and valuable material might be gathered. Already much from our PAST that we SHOULD POSSESS is IRRETRIEVABLY LOST to us [MHS-lib]

And throughout their writing, both invoke the term "ancient" as almost a talisman.

Erdnase: without giving some consideration to the ANCIENT and honorable game [p117]
Erdnase: It is a fact well known to archaeologists that many very wonderful arts which were possessed by the ANCIENTS have, through the course of ages, been completely lost to modern civilization. [p175]
Erdnase: The saying is as true as it is ANCIENT, and [p185]
Sanders: it is difficult to determine the exact limits of what in ANCIENT times were regarded as...
Sanders: where i see the ANCIENT affection burn
Sanders: in fellowship of ANCIENT days to meet each gladsome year

****(H) ---- Speech patterns ----

Both Sanders and Erdnase mimic dialectical speech, accents, and various colloquialisms.

Erdnase:
A colored attendant of a club-room, overhearing a discussion about running up two hands at poker, ventured the following interpolation: Don't trouble 'bout no two han's, Boss. Get yo' own han'. De suckah, he'll get a han' all right, suah!
Sanders:
He hez tears in hiz eyes when he talks uv him; what he sez uv him, sure it ain't so slim; but 1 sez ter him, with hiz reinekaboo, naow yer kaint fule me— so yer jess gaow tew
Sanders:
"Expect a poem," now, ye do! Consarn yer blawsted nerve [CR poem]

Sanders was very sensitive to speech patterns and word sounds and even discusses them explicitly.

Sanders:
his style of RAPID-FIRE DICTION in the lecture room was effective; for once he had started upon a sentence, no convulsion of nature, fall of constellations or wreck of worlds could daunt or stop him until his say was said; and sometimes in phrase so warped and convoluted that no formula of mathematics outside of the fourth dimension could establish its sinuosities. [CR bio]

Sanders: It is a sightly and simple name, to the PRONUNCIATION of which the comparatively numerous VOWELS that go to make up the word bring forth a liquid richness, a MUSICAL RHYTHM and a RESONANT FLOW OF SOUND that is delightful. [MHS-vol7]

More speech patterns here

****(H) ---- Foreign terms ----

Both Sanders and Erdnase include foreign (especially French) terms in their writing.

Erdnase: beté [sic] noir, denouement, Beau-monde, entrée, cong‌é
Sanders: mon cherez frè d'amie [CR poem]; coups des main [CR poem]; chapeaux [CR poem]; retrousse [CR bio]; avec corp de sanitation [CR poem]; salud! [CR bio], terra incognita [MHS-lib], aber nit [CR poem]

****(H) ---- Punctuation ----

Both Sanders and Erdnase use parentheses around individual letters/characters, to interject doubt:

Erdnase: careless (?) dealer
Erdnase: when his error (?)
Erdnase: cant of reformed (?) gamblers
Sanders: innate and in(co)herent modesty
Sanders: We were fed fit for princes (?) stuffed with veal without the veal [DIARIES]
Sanders: I am becoming quite a professional (?) cuisiner [DIARIES]

****(H) ---- New findings on anagrams and phonetic transpositions ----

As described previously, Sanders' early diaries and notebooks reinforce the anagram theory and provide perhaps the most striking piece of evidence in his favor. They contain examples of partial anagrams and rearrangements of the letters in his own name.

Apparently Sanders' predilection for thinking of names in terms of their constituent letters extended well into his adulthood. In published correspondence from 1896 (while he was at the Historical Society of Montana and only a few years before he unveiled the anagram S.W. Erdnase), Sanders writes about the soon-to-be-adopted name for his home state of Montana: "It is a short, sightly, and simple name, and one of much euphonic beauty; one which the people of this state would not care to part with for any possible COMBINATION OF LETTERS." [L-1896] It should be noted, however, that a similar characterization had already been used by members of Congress who criticized the proposed name as "a mere conglomeration of letters constituting no word." [The Columbus journal, June 19, 1889]

Additionally, in a footnote about Captin William Clark(e) to an article published by the Historical Society of Montana, Sanders discusses the varied spelling of Clark's name (with and without the "e") and declares that "A similar mutation in the spelling of names is illustrated in many other instances beside this." This is yet another example of Sanders' strong and recurrent interest in names and letter combinations. And it perhaps also hints that among the many other INSTANCES is the MUTATION from "WE Sanders" to "ES Andrews" to "SW Erdnase."

In addition to the anagram itself, it has been noted that embedded within the book's subtitle "Artifice RUSE AND Subterfuge" is the name "Andrews" ("AND RUSE") phonetically permuted into "RUSE AND." While not essential to the unpacking of the mystery, this is an additional clue signaling that the obvious backwards spelling of "E.S. Andrews" was perhaps a ruse or subterfuge itself. In the example below, from one of his poems, Sanders performs a similar phonetic shuffling on the name of one of his college classmates (Fred Bemis).

Though your face it was beaming [beaming ~ Bemis]
...
Now don't you, Me Boy ["Me Boy" ~ "Bemis"]

Note that the wordplay with Bemis (with the leading consonants (B,M) permuted into "Me Boy") is signaled by the capitalization. And the phonetic importance of Bemis is also reinforced earlier in the poem by the near homophones of "Bemis" and "beaming". This bit of wordplay is particularly interesting in that it mirrors the ("Ruse And" ↔ "Andrews") shuffling observed in the book's title.

It's also interesting to speculate about another possible spelling-related clue. In Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana Volume 2, Sanders included an errata correcting a spelling mistake, in text he had written, where incognita in terra incognita was misspelled incognito. This could be a Freudian slip, revealing that Sanders operated incognito under pseudonyms (e.g. Erdnase and/or Andrews) in order to hide his true identity. If so, Sanders tellingly makes this error while describing a "venturesome life" where the "chiefest delight" is in "overcoming dangers," a close parallel to Erdnase's description of a gambler's "delight" in "making the hazard."



Return to Index   Top of Highlights